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TANGERINES FARMING IN KENYA

TANGERINES

This is an orange colored citrus fruit that is closely related to, or possibly a type of mandarin orange. They are smaller and less rounded than common oranges. The taste is considered less sour, as well as sweeter and stronger, than that of an orange.

CLIMATE

Tangerines are relatively cold-tolerant making them easier to grow than oranges, grape fruits and other types of citrus. They require moist, well drained soil and will use lots of water as the fruit develops, but over watering can actually kill the tree by drawing the roots or promoting rot. A pit of 6.0- 7.5 is recommended.

PLANTING

Tangarines matures between 2-3 years. An acre can occupy 200 seedlings with a spacing of 4 by 5m.Profitability starts at around 5 years where each plant can produce more than 300 fruits. A hole size of 2ft by 2ft by 2ft is established and manure (20kg) per hole is mixed with the top soil and then put in the hole .Planting  is done and watering should be done at least twice a day in the initial stages of planting.

Cost analysis for one acre

If you are interested in establishing a tangerine Orchard we have made it very easy for you with only 50,000 oxfarm”s Package, you will only have to produce the land, we produce the seedlings and do the planting at your comfort. For those who are doing less than an acre we have certified seedlings at sh 150 each.

Also Read: Farmers already earning more from Macadamia nuts and hass Avocados

Expected output per acre

A Mature Tangerine can produce a minimum of 300 fruits per year. The current price of each fruit at the farm gate is Ksh 5- 20.This means you can get Sh 1500-6000 Per tree and with 200 trees per acre you are good for a start.

 

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Pepino melons (solanum muricatum) facts

Pepino melons (solanum muricatum) facts

Pepino melons have been grown since 1889 in South America bt came to the Kenyan market in 2013.It is important in the body for the following reasons,
_Has lots of vitamin A,C,K and B,proteins,iron and copper which helps in healthy immune system,potassium which lowers blood pressure and calcium for strong bones.
_Had soluble fiber that helps in lowering cholesterol and easing digestion.They are an excellent source of fiber.Fiber is a type of
carbohydrate your body does not digest.The fiber in the melons slows digestion helping you feel longer.
_Helps in weight loss due to their low amount of calories.All the calories in the pepino melons come from its carbohydrate content.
_Helps with liver disease,lower blood
pressure,helps those that suffer from strokes to heal faster and promotes cardiovascular health.
_The pepino melon is sodium free.Decreasing your daily intake of sodium lowers your blood pressure and reduce your risk of developing
illness related to high blood pressure such as heart disease and kidney disease.
_Pepino fruit is also beneficial to increase stamina.Herbal products from China are made from raw pepino now widely sold in Indonesia.
_The content of vitamin C in pepino 25 Mg per 100 grams of fruit fresh,vitamin c aids in preventing oral thrush and to maintain healthy gums.
_In addition to vitamin E vitamin C is a natural antioxidant useful against free radical attack,causes premature aging and various types of cancer.

Also Read: make money through passion fruit farming

The above benefits on the super fruit shows the need to venture in pepino melon fruit business or have a few for family use.Ensure you take one daily.
SEEDLINGS AVAILABLE IN OUR
STORE. CONTACT US
FOR DELIVERY COUNTRY WIDE.

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EXPORT OPPOTUNITIES FOR MANGOES

Kenyan mangoes have a ripe market in Japan

As the mango harvesting season approaches, farmers should be looking at export prospects as a way of making better earnings than they have been by selling them locally.Ministry of Agriculture officer Samuel Mburu says the surplus production of mango fruits during peak season of December-March has often been linked with losses on the part of farmers, who fail to select their markets well.

Farmers and vendors often sell their produce at throw-away prices for fear of losses, occasioned by the perishable nature of the fruit, yet they can chop them up and dry them for export.

Mangoes, which on average cost about KSh30, can shed off their price by up to a third to retail at KSh10 in local market, like Nairobi’s Wakulima and Gikomba.

A kilogramme of dry mangoes can fetch between Ksh650-KSh700 in export, according to Mburu. It requires about 6Kg (or  7-10 pieces) of fresh mangoes to make 1kg of dry chips.

“Japan and China are ready markets for dried mango chips. In fact, this market is stable all year round and can ensure regular earnings for farmers,” he said.

East African Growers and Keitt Exporter Ltd, among other companies, buy, package and exports this fruit and many more others on behalf of farmers.

Stratregy

Off-season production (June–August), can let farmers enjoy high local prices because the markets are usually not saturated around this time.

“But export produce must be of high quality,” Mburu, who is based in Machakos County told Farmbiz Africa.

Mr. Mburu advises farmers to select the pesticides they use wisely and also ensure that their produce are protected from diseases.

“Farmers lose between 30 per cent and 40 per cent of their produce to pesticides and diseases. Even if not all fruits are affected directly, quality is not guaranteed.”

“Quality produce starts with growing clean planting materials, and proper pest and disease control,” he said.

To look out for

Anthraxnose is one of the most common diseases that affect mangoes, and Mburu recommends planting of less susceptible varieties such as Tommy Atkins, Madoe, Keitt, Vandyke, Matthias, Sabine and Sabre.

Cutting and properly disposing affected parts of the plant can save on a great deal besides regular pesticide spraying.

For Mango management practices and seedlings contact us

 

Source: farmbizAfrica.com

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BEST METHOD OF PLANTING HASS AVOCADO

PLANTING

  1. a) PLANTING AND BRINGING THE TREE TO BEARING

When planning a new orchard, the following aspects need to be involved: soil type, climate and availability of irrigation water, management skills and cultivar to be planted.

  1.  ORCHARD LAYOUT AND SPACING
  • Set in a rectangular system that allows for movement of orchard equipment between the trees for spraying and harvesting.
    • Pruning may be required
    • Spacing of hass avocado can vary from 5m * 5m to 9m* 5m but the final decision rests with the grower.
  1.  DIRECTION OF ROWS
    The tree rows should be planted as close as possible in an east-west direction for maximum sunlight on both sides of the trees.
    The tree drip area should be kept clean of any growing crop but should be mulched.
  2.  PLANTING PROCEDURE
    Make sure that at the time of planting the soil is clean of weeds in the planting rows, the irrigation has been installed and is in a working condition and enough stakes are available for supporting the trees directly after planting.
  3.  HOLES SIZE AND POSITIONING.
    Trees should be kept upright and out of direct sunlight until they are physically planted. Planting holes can be dug with a hoe and spade and needs to be 2ft * 2ft *2ft.
  4. REMOVING PAPER.
    When ready for planting the bag is carefully cut open along one side without disturbing the root system. Loose soil is piled into the planting hole so that the soil level of the avocado tree will be 1/3 above the ground.
    • The tree is then kept upright and the hole is filled with soil and firmly pressed down. Fill to the soil level of the planting bag.
  5. WATERING
    Water the avocado tree directly after planting. Afterwards regular light every to 2 to 3 days is necessary to keep the root system from drying out.
  6. MULCHING
    Mulching around the trees will also prevent drying out of the soil and will keep the root system cool and active.
  7. SUPPORTING
    Use 1.8m to 2.0m treated poles/bamboo sticks for this purpose and plant them +/- 50mm away from the main stem of the tree.
    • Do not fasten the trees too tightly against the pole, but rather loosely. Ensure the stake is not placed within the root zone.
    For more information on hass avocado management contact us or visit our offices at Hermes House Nairobi Tom Mboya street opp K.T.D.A

CONTACT US FOR MORE IN MANAGEMENT AND SEEDLINGS

 

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HOW TO IRRIGATE HASS AVOCADO TREE

HASS AVOCADO

IRRIGATION

1) WHEN TO IRRIGATE
The most efficient way to water is to apply water when it begins to show signs of stress from lack of water. It’s paramount to avoid water stress unless it’s by design to induce it; lest one may incur massive crop loss on both quantity and quality. The following signs are indications of water stress;
• Footprints or tire tracks that remain in the grass long after being made
• Many leaf blades folded in half.
• If a soil sample sought from a profile 1-2ft deep is not pliable and sheds into soil droplets upon dropping to the ground.
• Premature fruit drop and/or flaccid fruits on trees.

2) EFFICIENCY OF WATER APPLICATION

• An efficient watering does not saturate the soil, and does not allow water to run off.
• Avoid extremes in watering frequency and amount. If you apply too much water, it runs off and is wasted.
• On the other hand, light frequent watering is inefficient and encourages shallow/restricted root systems.
• Typically, 2-3 irrigation rounds per week in the peak irrigation periods is ideal. If rainfall occurs, irrigation should be suspended depending on the rainfall amounts.

3) TIMING OF IRRIGATION

• The best time to irrigate is in the early morning hours and /or late evening. Watering during the day can be wasteful due to evaporation.
• Avocados require 8000-9000m3 per Ha for the whole year, including water supply from rain.
• The avocado trees have varied moisture requirement in amount depending on the prevailing physiological stage.
• Aspects/stages directly influenced by optimal water regime on avocados include; Flowering, fruit set, fruit drop fruit sizing and fruit quality.
• In central region, 50-60m3 suffices to supply adequate moisture to 1Ha of avocados in a 2 week cycle of irrigation in dry periods.
• In a week, 50-75 litres being applied per tree will supply adequate moisture to support the tree during peak demands.

Below is a guideline on irrigation calendar for the small-holder farmer:
PERIOD PLANT PHYSIOLOGY IRRIGATION STATUS WATER VOLUMES AND ROUNDS COMMENT

DEC – MAR Fruit set and rapid expansion Irrigate fully until rain starts 25-35 liters per tree twice every week There must be no stress on trees
APR – MAY Fruit development Do not irrigate Rainy season
JUN – AUG Harvest Partially irrigate 5-10 liters per tree once a week Maintenance only
Sept-mid Oct Dormant period Do not irrigate Stress prior to flowering
Mid Oct-rains(Nov) Flowering and fruit set Irrigate fully 25-35 liters per tree twice every week There must be no stress on trees

4) IRRIGATION METHOD OPTIONS FOR SMALL-HOLDER FARMER

a) DRIP IRRIGATION
• Install a drip line in the orchard to be served by a tank through gravity. Ensure the tank is raised and/or installed on higher ground.
• 2 drip lines to serve a row of trees.
• The tank can be filled with water by manually pouring using jericans or through pumping.

b) MANUAL IRRIGATION
• Entails manually transporting water in 5, 10,15 or so liter containers sprinkling around the root zone.
• Care should be taken to avoid excessive water application that can lead to run-off.
• Water can also be applied using watering cans and these give a better distribution.

MULCHING
• This is important operation that helps retain moisture around the root zone.
• It’s important to maintain mulch around the tree always.

CONTACT US FOR MANAGEMENT AND SEEDLINGS

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PEPINO MELON FARMING IN A GREENHOUSE

Did you know that pepino melons can be grown in a greenhouse? An 8m by 30m greenhouse can be planted between 300-500 seedlings.The expected output is 100% more than those grown in the open field. Pepino melons are also 100% more profitable than the normal crops grown in a greenhouse. They have a lifespan of more than 3 years in a greenhouse. They are also good for rotation in a greenhouse to reduce pest and diseases.

They require less capital to manage as they are grown organically. Put your greenhouse with a new investment this time not the normal and tiring crops like tomatoes and capsicum. Contact us on guidelines and seedlings as we take you through this investment. We offer free consultancy for those who buy seedlings from us. Contact us

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Earn more than 10 million per acre with 40k investment.

HASS AVOCADO FARMING – OXFARM’S CONTRACT

Here at oxfarm we have old hass trees {request for a visit at our demo farm} that have consistently given us income like in the case of real estate, its called passive income. Once you set it up you do not have to worry, why because hass avocado farming require least form of management but be present during harvesting time for inspection and counting, why? ask me later.

We faced challenges during planting and even later when we thought all could be well another big issue came up. We were tricked and bought varieties which were not hass avocado. We had to top work our trees, we wasted two years due to what we say negligence. Please if you have to buy any type of seedling request to see whether they are certified with concerned authorities. This will not only save you money but most importantly Time, 2-3 years waiting then it turns to be otherwise is so demotivating.

Enough about us, we came up with the package few years back where we save our clients hard time during planting which require one to have knowledge on basic planting technique and if you have ever tried to plant hass seedlings then you do understand what we mean. Some of our clients who enrolled in this package have harvested severally and in this year most of them will sell their fruits at an average of Ksh 12-25 depending with fruit sizes. Some sell to us while others to other major exporting companies for exports.

Below entails what you expect from the package.

WhatsApp Us Here

THE PACKAGE

Earn more than 10 million per acre with 40k investment.

Project: Hass avocado, contract farming
Cost: 40,500

What’s in 40.5k?

  • 150 hass avocado seedlings at a spacing of 17*17ft
  • Digging of holes 2ft by 2ft,
  • Soil Treatment with organic manure (earthlee)
  • delivery of seedlings and planting,
  • Market connection.

We start by first coming to your farm location to monitor and doing soil analysis to ensure that the project will be successful. The best time to do the project is during the rainy season either short or long rain, but in case you have an irrigation system you can do it any time. The best time to engage us is now to plan for the coming rain season. We do not charge anything for consultation the only cost is for transport to your farm at Ksh 20 per km from Nairobi for field visitation.

SHOP HERE

Hass Avocado Package

The least Forecaster returns for the first 10 years in a one acre land is as follows.

Return for an acre with 150 trees. (prices of hass fruit range between Ksh 8 – 30 in local market depending on size.

HERE IS THE ESTIMATE RETURN FROM AN ACRE

True to type Hass Avocado Fruit


• The first two years –growth stage
• 2nd year (harvest of 50 fruits per tree) – 60k
• 3rd year (harvest 200-250 fruits) – 240k
• 4th year – (400 fruits) – 480k
• 5th year – (800 fruits)- 900k
• 6th year – (1000 fruits) – 1.08m
• 7th year –(1100 fruits) – 1.3m
• 8th year –(more than 1300 fruits) – 1.5m
• 9th year – (more than 1500 fruits) – 1.8m
• 10th year – (more than 1750 fruits) – 2m

Total cumulative returns Ksh 10 million

by 20th year you expect?
• 20th year – (3500 fruits) – 4m

Note that:

We have calculated the prices of each fruit at a minimum price of Ksh 8 as of lowest in the local market, The prices go up to even Ksh35 per fruit (REF KAKUZI).


The life span of a hass avocado tree is more than 50 years, let your idle land become profitable by investing Ksh 40,000 in it and we will do the work for you or you can buy the seedlings from us each at Ksh 150. The good thing about hass avocado is that its market is growing each day and big companies like kakuzi and sasini have embraced this opportunity by planting thousands of their acres under hass avocado due to stability of the hass market and high returns. Rumors has it that our Vice President has planted acres due to the good opportunity the industry present. Then why not me?

The hass avocado is the least stressful form of farming because it’s a tree with least form of management you just have to visit your shamba when harvesting. Once you enroll in our package we will give you detailed information on our market, management practices, what you can inter crop with and recover your investment within some month’s.

Don’t miss this opportunity this short and long rain season we already have many acres under this project ongoing in Kenya.

Our contacts 0706222888 / 07236662773

WhatsApp us Here

OTHER COST INVOLVED

Contact us or fill out the booking form we will contact you  CLICK HERE.

PACKAGE FORM
8 + 0 =

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AVOCADO PRUNNING AND ITS IMPORTANCE

HASS AVOCADO

AVOCADO PRUNNING AND ITS IMPORTANCE

Pruning is an essential operation that ensures that trees in an orchard remain economically viable. Reasons for pruning include:
a) Promote light penetration into the trees thus keeping the shoots alive.
b) Maintain the frame work hence training for size and shape for effective light utilization, air movement and manage tree height.
c) Maintain size and shape for optimal tree and orchard management eg, tractors can move within the orchard with ease.
d) Encourage regular shoot and branch renewal, rejuvenating growth ensuring availability of new wood for fruiting.
e) Obtain tree complexity for maximum bearing units thus maximizing production.
f) Open up the trees hence reduce instances of fungal disease spread hence reduce instances of fungal diseases, e.g. Cercosfora.
g) Rehabilitate older trees.
h) Reducing plant tree vigor in water shoot removal.

Related Post: How well-planned are you for tree fruit farming this season?

TRAINING YOUNG TREES

• Training starts in tree seedlings whilst in the nursery. This entails selection of the strongest upright growing branch as a leader. There is also removal of any other strong branch developing on the tree to curb competition for energy and nutrients.
• Furthermore, horizontal side branches are spread evenly along the main stem to ensure that a strong frame, balanced framework will develop.
• Tree height can be maintained at 4.5m
• During the rest of the growing season, removal of water shoots has to be done continuously while the horizontal growing branches are tipped sparingly to stimulate side shoot development hence achieve branch complexity.
• As a guideline any branch thicker than half the thickness of the leader is removed whereas any branch thicker than a third the thickness of the leader is pruned back severely to control its vigor.

Actions taken in the 1st year:
a) Selection and developing of the leader.
b) Removal of leader competition.
c) Inducing shoot complexity.
d) Developing a well-balanced branching system (framework).
Actions taken in the 2nd year:
a) Water shoot and unwanted shoot removal.
b) Shoot and branch thinning for light penetration.
c) Besides these operations, shoots developing too close together are thinned.
From the 3rd year onwards, this regular and timed pruning continues to enhance the shape of the plant.

A PYAMID SHAPE

Its preferred as the best shape for avocado optimum crop production. To curb massive loss in production after pruning for shape achievement, one side of the tree rows running is pruned singly in a season after which the other part is pruned in the following season. Concurrently, branch renewal is done after harvest to maintain branch vigor for good production.
This is done by pruning back the branch to a new developing branch inside the tree.

THE HEIGHT

Should be maintained at 70% of the work row width to ensure adequate light interception into the rows onto the lower parts of the adjacent rows thus curbing the would-be shading effect if the trees were to be left to increase excessively in height.

WATERSHOOT REMOVAL

Remains a continuous operation in the tree management.
• Pruning is a tool that is used to rehabilitate older trees. Trees older than 12 years are usually very high and equally wide.
• This makes irrigation, spraying, picking, fertilizers application and general orchard management cumbersome. Production declines as well as fruit size and quality.
• Heavily encroached orchards require a 3-year pruning programme to reduce the tree size and open up the orchard.
Overhanging branches are removed completely to ensure that sunlight reaches into the tree up to the base. Any upward growing branches on the outer edge of the tree are removed. This diminish energy reserves by producing wood rather than fruit.
• Height control up to 70% of the work row tree then starts in the 2nd year. Shaping of the tree to achieve pyramid shape also starts. Continuous water shoot removal also continues. Maintenance pruning then continues from here.

For more information on hass avocado management and seedlings contact us or visit our offices at Hermes House Nairobi Tom Mboya street opp K.T.D.A

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COMMON PESTS AND DISEASES IN AVOCADO

HASS AVOCADOS

COMMON PESTS AND DISEASES IN AVOCADO
• It is good to note that avocado orchards enjoy natural enemies (predators and parasites) that are able to maintain a biological balance.
• Cultural control is also effective depending on the level of infestation.
• When both the cultural and the biological control system are not working, selective use of chemical insecticides to control pests and diseases is necessary.
• This approach is referred to as IPM.

a) MOSQUITO BUGS (Helopeltis schountedeni) – stainers
a. THE ADULT MOSQUITO BUG:
• Feeds early in the morning hours, late afternoon and at night. They fly quite fast and thus have a potential to affect many fruits.
b. THE NYMPH MOSQUITO BUG:
• They don’t fly and they only affect few fruits that are within their reach.
NB: THIS IS THE BEST STAGE TO CONTROL.
• To make decision on control method, we monitor for the two stages of the pest and for fruit damage.

b) FRUIT FLIES
• The female lays its eggs under the rind of an avocado fruit.
• Careful monitoring using pheromone traps is critical to establish population levels when to control and the efficacy of control measures taken.
CONTROL:
• Both natural and chemical methods are used.
• For chemical control, we bait. We use a protein bait as an attractant mixed with a chemical as the poison. Spays are to continue until the trapped number reach 0 and sprayed at low volumes.
• For cultural control method, the key thing is sanitation. Fruits fallen to the ground are also collected and disposed. Routine eradication of alternative hosts like guavas is also done.

c) FALSE CODLING MOTH (FCM)
• It is a major phytosanitary threat.
• When eggs laid on the surface of the fruit hatch, the caterpilars bore into the fruit, rendering it undesirable for consumption and leaving the fruit vulnerable to plant diseases and rot.
• Fruits may also ripen and drop from the trees prematurely. The resulting fruit loss and damage could potentially result in millions in economic losses. The fruit is prone to secondary infections.

d) SYSTATES WEEVILS
• Adult and systate weevil damage.
• Notched (uneven) feeding on the leaves is a classic sign of feeding by adults.
• This is significant on young trees and not big trees.
• The pest hide in the leaves, mulch and soil.
• Control is difficult because of their behavior. Cultural method of control is practiced. If pressure persist, chemical control is done.
• The timing of spray is critical.

DISEASES
• When you see diseases on the tree the damage is done
• Early detection is a great plus.
• Anthracnose & collectrotrichum
• On hass the symptoms will be seen as a bronzing, similar to mite damage on other crops, but has a small lesion and is described as “pepper spot”
• These diseases are most likely to occur during the wet conditions.
• When the fruit is small, i.e. smaller than pegion egg size, it is not susceptible.
• Fruits bigger than this size is susceptible to infection at any time under favorable climatic conditions for the fungus.
• Control with copper.

ROOT ROT MANAGEMENT.
i. Soil Selection
 Well drained and aerated.
 NB ridging/moulding.
ii. Resistant/Tolerant Rootstocks
 ‘Dusa’, ‘Duke 7’, ‘Bounty’
 Disease free nursery trees.
iii. Irrigation Management
 Beware of over-irrigation in sick trees
 Use of micro-jet or drip irrigation for better control.
iv. Chemical Control
 Young trees use Alliete paint.
 Mature trees inject with Phosphorous acid.

For more information on hass avocado management contact us or visit our offices at Hermes House Nairobi Tom Mboya street opp K.T.D.A