Grafting is a technique that is used to combine two plants to produce the desired rootstock, providing trees with the desired fruit characteristics. Grafted plants develop resistance to soil-borne diseases such as bacterial wilt, southern blight, fusarium wilt, root-knot nematodes, and verticillium wilt. It also enables the plants to withstand harsh climatic conditions and to overcome salinity issues. The grafted part is composed of the scion (the top of the grafted plant) and the rootstock (the bottom part). Grafting success is facilitated by the propagation environment, grafting methods and grafting seasons. Greenhouses and shade net houses are common structures in grafting nurseries.
They are categorized into two; high cost and low-cost greenhouses. The high-cost greenhouse comprises of a polythene sheet set on metallic ashes. This type is easy to build and it can withstand strong winds without getting damaged. Greenhouses offer an ideal environment for grafted plants. Temperatures inside the greenhouse are higher than in the outside environment although they can be maintained at the desired level. The humidity in the greenhouses can be raised by sprinkling water even during the cold season. Since they offer a propagated environment, the success rate of the plants is high. The investment capacity determines the type of greenhouses and shade net houses required. It is effective for both small scale and large scale graft plants’ nurseries.
A systematic shade house is required for both small and large scale multiplication of graft plants. Mostly, young graft plants need a regulated environment in partial shade. Shade net houses can be easily built since only wooden poles are used to support the shade net. They allow the circulation of air and are not affected by wind. They offer a controlled environment required for the proper growth of the graft plants.
In a controlled environment, the graft plants take fewer days to sprout. These plants have a high number of leaves and grow at a faster rate. In Greenhouses and shade net houses, the grafts seem to heal quickly. The graft exposure to optimum temperature and humidity results in variations in the number of leaves of the graft plants. High humidity helps in the formation of the callus between the scion and stock and also prevents the scion from drying. Compatibility between the scion and the stock promotes cambium formation and easy union formation.
With the latest gadgets and innovations, technology has transformed today’s agriculture. The number of entrepreneurs and investors who are investing their money in agriculture has been rising rapidly. In the future, agriculture will look completely different from what it is today. There have been major advancements in telecommunication, engineering of farm machinery and equipment, and computer software. In Kenya, mobile technology has been used extensively to improve small and large scale farming. It helps in reducing post-harvest and weather-related losses, improving farm operations, comparing different market rates, controlling farm machinery and equipment, monitoring the supplies and in the process making farming more efficient. Some of the major technologies that will take agriculture to another level are sensors, automation and mechanical engineering, and mobile devices.
Since most farm equipment can be connected to mobile devices most farmers are incorporating mobile devices in their farm operations. There are many apps that perform a wide range of functions such as controlling water meters, checking the weather, collecting field-level information and selling farm products.
Combining different technologies, farmers can be able to create smart farming systems. Smart farming utilizes internet-connected tools to leverage and capture data required for decision making.
Sensors play an important role in farming such as traceability, helping farmers to get real-time information and data regarding their equipment, livestock, and crops. Furthermore, they promote accuracy since the data undergoes complex diagnosis and analysis before a report is given. Today, sensors are connecting to sophisticated systems that analyze the collected data automatically. To grow high-performance crops, farmers are employing high tech systems. Sensors are also used for comparing weather conditions and testing the soil. Some of the sensors used in agriculture include:
Livestock biometrics: Collars with GPS and biometrics can be used to collect and relay real-time information about the livestock automatically.
Soil and Air sensors: These are sensors that can help farmers to understand water, soil and air conditions of their farms.
Crop sensors: These sensors are used to collect information related to the crops. They can help farmers understand the field conditions before fertilizer application and the amount of fertilizer required in the field. Drones can be utilized to monitor the crops’ health and know the correct remedy to prescribe in case the crops are not healthy. For instance, they can identify if the crops have been infested by pests or powdery mildew and relay the information to the farmers for analysis. During irrigation, sensors can be mounted on the irrigation systems to measure the amount of moisture in the soil which can help the farmer to know when there is enough moisture in the soil. Since the rate of irrigation is different in different crops, the information relayed by these sensors can vary. To assess the performance of the crops, drones can be fitted with sensors and GPS technology.
Equipment telematics: This technology is used for communication or from far. For instance, tractors can be started and given a few minutes to warm up before they start working.
In the next few years, farm equipment and machinery will be automated. Automation incorporates the use of robotics, micro-robots, computer applications and systems to monitor and maintain the crops. Some of the recent advancements include:
Variable-rate swath control: This is an advancement of geo-location technologies that help farmers to save on fertilizers, seeds, and herbicides by pre-computing the field size, overlapping inputs and automating tasks such as fertilizer application.
Agricultural robots: These days, tractors can be used to apply to be installed with devices that can be used to apply pesticides and liquid fertilizers to crops in the field. Agricultural robots can be programmed to perform tasks such as seeding and harvesting automatically.
Today, organic foods are appealing to consumers since they are an ethical choice and healthy. Therefore, organic farming can be a profitable sphere to venture in. Apart from ethics and money. Organic farming practices are friendly to the environment. Organic farming can be considered as a farming method that avoids the use of pesticides, synthetic fertilizers, additives, growth regulators and growth hormones. They rely on animal manures, bio-fertilizers, crop residues, crop rotation, organic wastes, and mechanical cultivation. Biological methods are used for pest and weeds control while still maintaining soil productivity. Organic farming helps in enhancing biological diversity, soil fertility and this way resulting in sustainability in agriculture.
To maintain soil fertility, crops should be supplied with nutrients using insoluble nutrients like the action of micro-organisms. Legumes can be grown to ensure nitrogen soil self-sufficiency since they facilitate to nitrogen fixation.
Pros of Organic Farming
In fruit farming, organic farming has many benefits such as reducing chemical residual levels and minimizing soil erosion. China giving a nod to Kenyan avocados, that was a big opportunity for Kenyan farmers. However, the export license can end up being canceled if high pesticide levels and the use of unregistered pesticides are detected. Apart from discouraging smart farming practices like crop rotation and growing cover crops, pesticides and synthetic chemicals result in soil, air and water contamination. Continuous use of pesticides allows disease resistance to develop in weeds, plants, bacteria, fungi, and plant-eating-insects.
Soil erosion is a serious issue that should be combated since it affects the land, humans and can greatly cut the fruit supply, especially when the trees are destroyed.
When you treat the soil with harmful pesticides, you destroy it to the point that the soil can no longer thrive on its own. Growing healthy fruits starts with healthy soil. Organic farming means that you will produce healthy fruits.
Organic farming facilitates water conservation and preservation. Some fruit trees such as peaches, pears cannot tolerate drought and hence require a lot of irrigation. Apples require a lot of water during vegetative growth and fruit formation. Most fruits are resistant to rotting hence they can withstand wet soils. Most mature fruits are composed of approximately 70% water. This means that plants require a lot of water during fruit formation. On most occasions, 1% of the water that the trees use is retained in the fruits. Continuous use of fertilizers reduces water retention capability results in poor drainage of the soil. This leads to a lot of irrigation, affected water conservation negatively. When farmers employ organic practices such as mulching, they manage to minimize irrigation and hence conserve water.
Consumers prefer organically grown fruits not only in Kenya but also in other countries since they are tastier. The quality of the fruits is also different. Organically grown fruits are free from preservatives, harmful chemicals, and artificial flavors. Furthermore, the cost of organic fruit farming is relatively lower compared to non-organically grown ones.
The organic farming industry faces several challenges. For instance, farmers are not aware of the high demand for organic fruits and their market. Also, there is a lack of enforcement o organic farming, lack of certification by agricultural bodies and lack of proper inspection of fruit quality. The inappropriate use of chemical and high maximum residual levels (MRLs) in the horticultural sector, for example, resulted in the European Union rejecting Kenya’s horticulture produce. This shows the importance of setting standards and certification of organic farming.
The demand for organically produced fruits has been rising not only locally but also in the export market. Some farmers are already amassing high incomes from organic fruits. Unfortunately, the number of organic farmers is still low and hence the demand is yet to be met. In Kenya, there are some supermarkets in Nairobi and other parts of the country which are stocking their shelves with organic foods. Apart from low chemical levels, organic fruits have health benefits to those suffering from serious diseases such as high blood pressure, cancer, and diabetes.
If other farmers are amassing wealth from organic farming, why not you? For more information, you can consult Oxfarm.co.ke to get into the organic farming.
Kenya is the rising star. It has taken 65 years to prove that a man can run a marathon in less than 2 hours. What Eliud kipchoge’s success has proved is that the perpetual and best things in life take time. Farmers should all be willing and patient to go through the process because God makes everything beautiful in the fullness of time.
The biggest advantage with Kenya is that its rich soils combined with climate is suitable for hass avocado growing as the crop requires areas with at least 1,000mm of rainfall.
Currently, Kenyan hass avocados are mainly intended for Europe and have recently gained access to the Asian market, where the sector is growing. The acreage and production are growing and new export markets, especially in Asia, are being opened.
The most important development on the export market of Kenyan hass avocados is the future trade agreement with China. As soon as this agreement is fully active, 40% of the avocados are expected to go to the Chinese market.
In 2017, Kenya accounted for 38.9% of Africa’s total avocado exports and for 1.3% of the fruit’s global trade. Kenya is the 7th biggest producer of hass avocados in the world with an average annual production of 191,000 tonnes per year as of 2017, compared to Mexico, the first in the world with, 1.5 million tonnes per year, according to Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).
Kenya can be the leading producer and export if it can address the challenge of increasing irrigation to ensure better yield and uniformity of avocado fruits, increase avocado acreage under production, and improve the quality of avocado fruits by planting the right variety.
Finally, farmers lets embrace hass avocados planting and with all the records set lets know that we are not limited to attaining the number one slot in the world as our great warrior Eliud Kipchoge did.
Hass Avocado Is The Canopy Of Life: A Testimony Of TEHU Self Help Group
They say when people come together they can conquer the world and there is power in numbers. Mr. Paul Muthami Tumuti a writer and a farmer who is the chairman of TEHU self-help group had a vision for the group and the entire Kenya. According to Mr. Muthami “Avocado is the canopy of life”, this is what we are going to show you in this article.
Mr. Muthami who is an alumni of Kimathi Institute which has now changed to Dedan Kimathi University of Technology studied building but decided to do farming as a part timer.
Every day is a learning day and life is an experience. Few farmers had Hass avocado trees in TETU and market was a challenge. Brokers and Cartels always come in sheep skin but inside they are leopards. They will tell farmers how the market has shifted and they should sell their produce to them since they are connected and have ready market.
In 2016, with just 22 members, TEHU (Tetu and Huhoini) Fruits and Vegetables self-help group was formed and registered with assistance of agricultural department. The main purpose of forming the group was most farmers had few mature trees and the only way of having a bargaining power was to be in a group. TEHU was registered from members of several sub-locations that are karaihu, Kigogoini, Gatumbiro, Kiriti, e.t.c.
In 2016, the group sold 52,000 pieces of hass avocado from various farmers to one of the biggest exporters in Kenya. Their anticipation was 10 Ksh per fruit but they only managed to sell at 5.19 Ksh per fruit. They were very demoralized and almost gave up. However, they knew there was hope because previously their fruits were being bought for less than Ksh 2-4.
In 2017 more members joined and they had 17 new members making a total of 35 members. According to the chairman, they were frustrated by the strict conditions given by the exporter and they decided to sell at the farm gate. This time they managed to get a supplier. They sold a total of 78,000 hass avocados fruits at 8.50 Ksh. This was more of a break through. The farmers were excited since they were paid promptly and at the farm gate.
In 2018, the group was becoming bigger, from 35 members to 110. This time the group expanded from Tetu and Huhoini to other areas such as Thegenge, Nyeri Municipality, Mweiga, and Giakanja.e.t.c. The dream was coming to a reality and now the target was an exporter. So the group management together with members called a meeting to deliberate on the terms to be given to the buyers of the fruits.
Avocado Training in Meru, OxfarmAg educating farmers group
Terms to the buyer
They should verify the quality and quantity of the fruits
They should negotiate and agree on the best price.
Exporter/interested party have to deposit a good sum of money in TEHU’s bank account as a down payment.
Supervision both from the exporter and TEHU has to be present during harvesting.
In 2018 the group received more than 10 interested parties who wanted to buy the fruits from members. Each buyer was to come up with best price they can buy the fruits and also best terms. The management tasked by the group was meant to select the best of the parties,
The group members sold the fruits to one of the exporting companies at Ksh 12 per fruits gate price.
In 2019, Things were bigger and better, the members rose from 110 to 300 of which 150 members had mature fruits for sale. This time members came all the way from marwa, and Othaya. After doing the vetting of various interested parties, one exporter who won to buy the fruits bought 450,000 pieces of hass avocado at Ksh 16 and 200,000 Fuertes avocados at Ksh 6- Ksh 8. While the members were selling at Ksh 16, the non-members were selling theirs at Ksh 8. That is 100% difference; do you now believe there is power in numbers?
TEHU has created for the local young people who during harvesting are highly engaged. Its only in 2016 they had professional pickers but there after the group decided to engage the local young people.
Some conditions for Becoming a Member of the group.
TEHU doesn’t discriminate any farmer, whether you are a farmer with a single tree or a farmer like Mr. Kabue from Githakwa with 300 trees. So what do you need to become a member?
Registration and membership fee of Ksh 1000
Fruit should be grown organically, (no synthetic fertilizers). Most exporters want organic products. ( Use traps instead of chemicals to control pests)
Members should undergo trainings
Members should wait for the fruits to mature fully and wait for TEHU management to give out directives
The group management meets at least once in a month to deliberate on issues affecting the group or emerging news. On the other hand, members meet at least twice a year.
Benefits of being in the group to the farmer
After having an interview with TEHU self help group chairman Mr. Muthami, we visited a member of Tehu, Mr Kabui, a farmer of Hass avocado who hass 300 trees and here is a summary of the advantages associated with joining TEHU.
Group creates social relations that enable individuals to achieve goals that they may not otherwise be able to achieve by themselves.
Enable farmers to improve on fruits quality due to trainings.
Help farmers benefit from economies of scale by lowering their costs of acquiring inputs or hiring services such as pickers and transport.
It also empowers their members economically and socially by involving them in decision-making processes that create additional rural employment opportunities, or enable them to become more resilient to economic and environmental shocks.
They have an easy reach to resources as group members can apply for loans on bank they operate on due to the security they have on the fruits.
They have an easy reach to donors such as DANIDA as it has offered to construct a cold room for the group.
They attract good hass Avocado prices as they have quantities that can interest exporters thus eliminating the broker and having a direct exporter of their produce.
How Is the Avocado Market?
According to Mr. Muthami, even if we uprooted all the other trees in Kenya and plant avocados, we wouldn’t meet the global demand of avocado. Currently avocado fruit is the most sort after because of its healthy benefits. Mexico produces more than 40% of the total global production of hass avocado. Combined with other Latin American nations they produce more than 80%.
Their avocado fruits hit the market between March and June. This is a great advantage to Kenya and other tropical countries in Africa since our avocados and especially the highlands mature at around June-September. ” If only we farmers can be patient enough and sell in August…” poses Mr. Muthami. By around that time, there are few fruits in Europe and Middle East which means, by the law of demand and supply, assuming the demand is constant, the price will definitely go higher.
“The consumer wants the product but most don’t have the conditions to grow them. Avocado oil is very expensive and it’s very hard to find it in local market. For economic returns and food security the farmers have to be into groups. Most farmers are frustrated by market when they do it individually. The more you narrow the chain of brokers the more you earn. Use good agricultural practices and channel your energy in good use” Added Mr. Muthami.
What Ministry Of Trade Should Know
County governments and national government can play a vital role in ensuring youths and farmers form groups that can help them market their produce be it fruits or veggies. Nyeri alone produces more than 10 million hass avocado but are disorganized and sell to brokers at less than Ksh 8.
Imagine, TEHU due to their bargaining power sold their fruits at Ksh 16, while most individual farmers at Ksh 8. This means more revenue is lost in Nyeri county alone. Agriculture is the backbone of Kenya in terms of GDP. It then means that if the relevant parties can come together and ensure farmers are organized, they can offer employment.
There are many beneficiaries;
County and national governments
Employment to the local young people
TEHU testimony should be used as an inspiration to many young people.
Where is the Future of Young People in farming?
Young people can form groups and grow crops together. Quantity is the biggest challenge, but if young people have good will, have trusts among them they can do wonders.
The world we are living in has many challenges, after completing education, most youths end up in towns, tarmacking looking for white color jobs but the money is with masses and coming together. We keep on complaining how there no jobs in Kenya, the time is now, and we must come together and fight together.
Writers’ Point of view
TEHU coming together is a success story that ought to reach the entire world. Its part of a comprehensive and sustainable plan advocating the long term vision of the hass avocado farmers. It will benefit farmers and the entire village’s community since it advocates better farming practices at a minimized cost and will thus increase the avocado production leading to more profits for farmers.
I trust that this article would inspire many more hass avocado farmers and help them in creating both employment revenue for themselves. I also take this opportunity to congratulate all the TEHU members who have been working tirelessly for achieving their objective. You are True Heroes!
As OxfarmAg Ltd company we are involved in training and organization of farmers groups interested on avocado farming.
If you would like to book us email us email@example.com
A mature avocado tree may produce in excess of a million flowers during the flowering period, most of which fall without producing fruit. One of the factors leading to flower fall is proper pollination not taking place.
Bees are the world’s dominant pollinators. Within orchards they play a vital role in the pollination of the fruit trees. Without them yields might not be economically viable. Therefore, there is a need to protect and ensure the preservation of these important environmental components.
Without honeybees and cross-pollination, a mass majority of fruits would not be available.
Well, the overall goal of cross-pollination is to ensure that the pollen from the stamen in one flower has been transferred to the pistil of another flower. Once the pollen grain has transferred from the stamen to the pistil, the grain germinates and fertilizes the ovule developing a seed. Bees play an imperative role in this process as they are carriers of the pollen.
As the country gears for referendum of Punguza Mzigo or either the BBI to ease the financial burden and corruption the country is facing so do our beloved farmers need to plant Hass avocado this coming rainy season to ease their financial strains in three years to come.
The gains of the proposed amendments to the constitution may be gained in three years to come and so do the gains by planting Hass avocado will be realized. As the politicians are yelling for the amendments of the constitution so do farmers need to embrace change in the various traditional methods of farming to realize profits and profits for their hard work. With many of the resources needed for sustainable food security already stretched, the challenges are huge. At the same time, climate change is already negatively impacting agricultural production globally and locally. Farms must increase production of food while preserving the environment, but they can’t do it alone and they can’t do it using today’s traditional farming practices.
Each and every second the world population increases by three people or more which translates to an average of 240,000 people per day. This should serve as an opportunity to our farmers as more food is needed to feed this ever increasing population.
An acre of Hass avocado with good and proper management can earn a farmer over 1million ksh. This is the change farmers should clamor for. Here at OXFARM we do offer various farming packages which are detailed in our blogs.
For Hass avocado establishment contact 0706, 222,888.
The collapse of the coffee crop has led to farmers exploiting other farming ventures to fill the financial gap. One of the best ways of fixing this mess is macadamia farming which has proved to be a lucrative business.
The observed decline in coffee production among smallholder farmers is due to a number of factors, including the collapse of the International Coffee Agreement (ICA) in the 1980s, lack of access to credit, inadequate transportation and communication, poor banking infrastructure and poorly managed cooperatives.
Many coffee farmers operate at a loss, with their beans earning about $0.55 per kilogram, according to a report last year by London-based advocacy group Fair Trade.
Liberalization of the coffee sector resulted in decreased production of coffee. The reasons cited for the decline in coffee production included:- the mismanagement of co-operative societies; declining farmers’ earnings; decline in application of inputs; poor farming practices; and farmers’ loss of confidence in management of coffee affairs.
Farmers are being swayed by the prompt and better pay from macadamia nuts compared to coffee, which, apart from low returns, is labour-intensive and requires a lot of care.
“I have had people come here and openly bid for my macadamia harvest. I pick the highest bidder, and get my pay instantly. This is not the case with coffee; I have to wait for months to receive pay and I have no say in what I get paid as the deductions are done at the factory,” these are words from Gikondi , Mukurweini farmer called Ngigi when he was being interviewed by a standard newspaper reporter.
According to Oxfarm Ltd, an acre of land will hold to 70 Macadamia trees. This could earn a farmer, going by the minimal returns of Ksh150 per kilogram of nuts Ksh1, 050,000 per acre if a farmer harvests 100Kg per tree, depending on farming practices and favorable climate. At the primary harvest, that comes 3 years after transplantation of seedlings, a farmer will get between 30kg and 50kg, reckoning on the range and the attention given to the trees. Production will increase with each harvest.
In coffee farming the returns in an acre are very low and incomparable to macadamia earnings. Coffee farmers are earning peanuts and have been plunged in cooperative debts for years. Here at Oxfarm we do advise farmers on how to establish a macadamia plantation by intercropping with coffee and get relieved off the colonial crop which has made our hardworking farmers poor and poorer.
To order certified grafted macadamia variety seedling contact 0706 222 888.
It’s an organic product which has essential element for the growth of microorganisms in the soil, and is decomposed into inorganic fertilizer as the microorganisms grow.
It acts as soil conditioners, feeding both soil and plants.
Organic gardening emphasizes cultivating your garden with it so that it sustains enriching soil, plants and the soil structure is improved and as a result the soil’s ability to hold onto water and nutrients increases.
It’s an organic fertilizer rich in organic matter and helps microbes thrive. The carbon, along with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium that feed microbes and enable them to make nutrients available for plants in a naturally occurring biological process.
The organic materials serve as both fertilizers and soil conditioners—they feed both soils and plants. This is one of the most important differences between a chemical approach and an organic approach toward soil care and fertilizing.
Earthlee accomplishes the normal function of organic matter and there by reduces the need for bulk application of organic matter in the soil.
Regular use of earthlee helps improve quality and quantity of yields as well as the overall health of plants and trees. It also helps in releasing locked nutrients in the soil e.g. phosphates, iron, calcium, etc., making them available to the plant. Increased general vigor, improved root systems and a darker greening of foliage are among the first results which may be observed within 1 to 4 weeks after application.
20 grams of earthlee equals a 20kg bucket of organic compost/manure.
Here at OXFARM we have embraced the use of this wonderful product to the farmers we have partnered with them as it has lessened the burden of the bulky manure.
For more information on this product call 0723 662 773.
In Kenya farmers have been worried by the state of land being deficient of moisture leading to scanty vegetation. All these climatic, desert-producing factors – descending, drying air currents; mountain-produced rain shadows; distance from oceanic moisture sources; and cold ocean currents – are instrumental, sometimes singly, more often in combination, as primary forces producing arid lands. We at OXFARM have come up with a program which will mitigate this current water moisture deficiency in the soil.
Absorber is a polymer consisting of a set of polymer chains. Absorber is a water retainer that, when incorporated into a soil or a substrate absorbs and retains large quantities of water and nutrients. Unlike most products that become hydrated, Absorber has the property of easily releasing the absorbed water and nutrients, thereby allowing the plant to have water and nutrients available at will as a function of the absorption – release cycles. When water comes into contact with one of these chains, it is drawn into the molecule by osmosis. It has a holding capacity of 100 to 150 times its weight. It has a 5 year life span.