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Pruning is an essential operation that ensures that trees in an orchard remain economically viable. Reasons for pruning include:
a) Promote light penetration into the trees thus keeping the shoots alive.
b) Maintain the frame work hence training for size and shape for effective light utilization, air movement and manage tree height.
c) Maintain size and shape for optimal tree and orchard management eg, tractors can move within the orchard with ease.
d) Encourage regular shoot and branch renewal, rejuvenating growth ensuring availability of new wood for fruiting.
e) Obtain tree complexity for maximum bearing units thus maximizing production.
f) Open up the trees hence reduce instances of fungal disease spread hence reduce instances of fungal diseases, e.g. Cercosfora.
g) Rehabilitate older trees.
h) Reducing plant tree vigor in water shoot removal.

Related Post: How well-planned are you for tree fruit farming this season?


• Training starts in tree seedlings whilst in the nursery. This entails selection of the strongest upright growing branch as a leader. There is also removal of any other strong branch developing on the tree to curb competition for energy and nutrients.
• Furthermore, horizontal side branches are spread evenly along the main stem to ensure that a strong frame, balanced framework will develop.
• Tree height can be maintained at 4.5m
• During the rest of the growing season, removal of water shoots has to be done continuously while the horizontal growing branches are tipped sparingly to stimulate side shoot development hence achieve branch complexity.
• As a guideline any branch thicker than half the thickness of the leader is removed whereas any branch thicker than a third the thickness of the leader is pruned back severely to control its vigor.

Actions taken in the 1st year:
a) Selection and developing of the leader.
b) Removal of leader competition.
c) Inducing shoot complexity.
d) Developing a well-balanced branching system (framework).
Actions taken in the 2nd year:
a) Water shoot and unwanted shoot removal.
b) Shoot and branch thinning for light penetration.
c) Besides these operations, shoots developing too close together are thinned.
From the 3rd year onwards, this regular and timed pruning continues to enhance the shape of the plant.


Its preferred as the best shape for avocado optimum crop production. To curb massive loss in production after pruning for shape achievement, one side of the tree rows running is pruned singly in a season after which the other part is pruned in the following season. Concurrently, branch renewal is done after harvest to maintain branch vigor for good production.
This is done by pruning back the branch to a new developing branch inside the tree.


Should be maintained at 70% of the work row width to ensure adequate light interception into the rows onto the lower parts of the adjacent rows thus curbing the would-be shading effect if the trees were to be left to increase excessively in height.


Remains a continuous operation in the tree management.
• Pruning is a tool that is used to rehabilitate older trees. Trees older than 12 years are usually very high and equally wide.
• This makes irrigation, spraying, picking, fertilizers application and general orchard management cumbersome. Production declines as well as fruit size and quality.
• Heavily encroached orchards require a 3-year pruning programme to reduce the tree size and open up the orchard.
Overhanging branches are removed completely to ensure that sunlight reaches into the tree up to the base. Any upward growing branches on the outer edge of the tree are removed. This diminish energy reserves by producing wood rather than fruit.
• Height control up to 70% of the work row tree then starts in the 2nd year. Shaping of the tree to achieve pyramid shape also starts. Continuous water shoot removal also continues. Maintenance pruning then continues from here.

For more information on hass avocado management and seedlings contact us or visit our offices at Hermes House Nairobi Tom Mboya street opp K.T.D.A

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• It is good to note that avocado orchards enjoy natural enemies (predators and parasites) that are able to maintain a biological balance.
• Cultural control is also effective depending on the level of infestation.
• When both the cultural and the biological control system are not working, selective use of chemical insecticides to control pests and diseases is necessary.
• This approach is referred to as IPM.

a) MOSQUITO BUGS (Helopeltis schountedeni) – stainers
• Feeds early in the morning hours, late afternoon and at night. They fly quite fast and thus have a potential to affect many fruits.
• They don’t fly and they only affect few fruits that are within their reach.
• To make decision on control method, we monitor for the two stages of the pest and for fruit damage.

• The female lays its eggs under the rind of an avocado fruit.
• Careful monitoring using pheromone traps is critical to establish population levels when to control and the efficacy of control measures taken.
• Both natural and chemical methods are used.
• For chemical control, we bait. We use a protein bait as an attractant mixed with a chemical as the poison. Spays are to continue until the trapped number reach 0 and sprayed at low volumes.
• For cultural control method, the key thing is sanitation. Fruits fallen to the ground are also collected and disposed. Routine eradication of alternative hosts like guavas is also done.

• It is a major phytosanitary threat.
• When eggs laid on the surface of the fruit hatch, the caterpilars bore into the fruit, rendering it undesirable for consumption and leaving the fruit vulnerable to plant diseases and rot.
• Fruits may also ripen and drop from the trees prematurely. The resulting fruit loss and damage could potentially result in millions in economic losses. The fruit is prone to secondary infections.

• Adult and systate weevil damage.
• Notched (uneven) feeding on the leaves is a classic sign of feeding by adults.
• This is significant on young trees and not big trees.
• The pest hide in the leaves, mulch and soil.
• Control is difficult because of their behavior. Cultural method of control is practiced. If pressure persist, chemical control is done.
• The timing of spray is critical.

• When you see diseases on the tree the damage is done
• Early detection is a great plus.
• Anthracnose & collectrotrichum
• On hass the symptoms will be seen as a bronzing, similar to mite damage on other crops, but has a small lesion and is described as “pepper spot”
• These diseases are most likely to occur during the wet conditions.
• When the fruit is small, i.e. smaller than pegion egg size, it is not susceptible.
• Fruits bigger than this size is susceptible to infection at any time under favorable climatic conditions for the fungus.
• Control with copper.

i. Soil Selection
 Well drained and aerated.
 NB ridging/moulding.
ii. Resistant/Tolerant Rootstocks
 ‘Dusa’, ‘Duke 7’, ‘Bounty’
 Disease free nursery trees.
iii. Irrigation Management
 Beware of over-irrigation in sick trees
 Use of micro-jet or drip irrigation for better control.
iv. Chemical Control
 Young trees use Alliete paint.
 Mature trees inject with Phosphorous acid.

For more information on hass avocado management contact us or visit our offices at Hermes House Nairobi Tom Mboya street opp K.T.D.A

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Avocado the new cash crop in our farms

  • The most important crop to me now is avocado of the hass variety. The fruit has a limitless market in Europe.
  • It is bigger than coffee. One properly watered tree of hass avocado can give you 1,000 fruits a year, which comes to Sh8,000.
  • Relief seeds is far more helpful than relief food. With the poorest soil conditions, the 2kg should be able to give us three to five bags.
  • To increase the market for farmers, we have also launched the Murang’a County Schools Milk Programme. Pupils from nursery to Standard Eight get a packet every week.

The most important crop to me now is avocado of the hass variety. The fruit has a limitless market in Europe.

We just can’t satisfy that market. Before we regularised the market, farmers used to sell a fruit for as low as Sh1.

Now they sell one for Sh8. We negotiated with four buyers and set the minimum price. Last year farmers in Murang’a earned Sh500 million from avocados.

It is bigger than coffee. One properly watered tree of hass avocado can give you 1,000 fruits a year, which comes to Sh8,000.

However, we have also distributed four million seedlings of the high-yielding Batian variety that is resistant to coffee berry disease and leaf rust.

We gave out 100 seedlings per farmer and they are now harvesting this coffee. The variety has significantly boosted productivity, raising it from Sh17 a kilo to Sh61.

We have also addressed food crops. We have given farmers 2kg of high quality maize seeds depending on their altitude.

Relief seeds is far more helpful than relief food. With the poorest soil conditions, the 2kg should be able to give us three to five bags.

Anything on value addition?

In a month’s time we will have the first farmers owned milk factory since independence. This will complete the milk value chain.

To increase the market for farmers, we have also launched the Murang’a County Schools Milk Programme. Pupils from nursery to Standard Eight get a packet every week.

But how sustainable is this?

The infrastructural investments we have are long-term. With the right management, our children should be able to drink this milk in a sustainable manner.

Why did Murang’a choose to go the organic manure way?

Instead of going for the usual inorganic fertilisers, we went for manure because it has a lasting restorative power on soil.

We buy manure from across the country and sell it to farmers at subsidised rates. It is one of the most popular products.

contact us for hass avocado seedlings








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Hass avocado farming is the next big cash crop in Kenya. In the next 3 years each fruit will be retailing for more than sh 30 which is 100% increase from the current price of sh 15 per fruit at the farmgate. This is due to its day to day discovery of new products in it. These include manufacturing of all types of oil, soap and fat. Don’t be left behind when others are planting this rainy season and after 2 years you will be making great money. A mature Hass avocado tree of 15-20 years can produce more than 3000 fruits per year which mean you can get shot 30000-40000 per tree. An acre can be planted 150 seedlings.

Also Read: how to grow peaches and nectrines

The good part of it is that avocados requires no management after planting and the normal farming activities will take place as they do not interfere with any crop that you plant. With only sh 40000 per acre we do the planting and manage your farm for 3 months. We also sell seedlings at sh 150 per seedling for those who don’t have big sizes of land. Get in touch with us today. Visit our offices in Nyeri (Osman Allu) , Nairobi (Hermes building) and Eldoret (opposite veecam house). CONTACT US for enquiry.


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Hass avocado that is gaining popularity due to huge market oversees

This is not lotto we are talking of guaranteed income to farmers. The trend is not good for farmers nowadays compared to previous years due to numerous reasons major ones being uncontrollable pests and diseases and also drought that have led to big losses. It might get even worse but we have good news for you, we will guide you on various plants to grow in your land that require little or no management which are drought resistant with ready market and an acre giving you a million very comfortably every year.



























One such plant is hass avocado that is gaining popularity due to huge market potential to European market. It does well in almost all areas of the country, its drought resistant, no frequent diseases and pest control, it’s a tree with numerous uses etc. The hass avocado tree can be harvested for the next more than 50 years and its yield continue to increase exponentially.

Oxfarm Organic Ltd did a sampled research from farmers last week in Muranga, Eldoret, Meru, Nakuru and Machakos and from them a 5 year old hass avocado tree yielded on average of Ksh 4000-7000 per year and with an acre able to accommodate 150 trees a farmer gets Ksh 600000 – 1million.

This income increases as the tree grows bigger where a farmer Mr Karanja at Kenol recorded an income of Ksh 25000 from a single tree of 19 years. We have made it simple for you to invest in your land,

We have a package of one acre that is going at Ksh 40000 that involve signing of a contract that include

  • Field visit and soil testing analysis,
  • Delivery of pure hass seedlings,
  • Preparation of planting holes,
  • Planting and monitoring for three months and
  • Connecting farmer to the market.


We also sell our hass seedlings at 150 each and we do delivery country wide. Visit our offices today for further details and book a visit to your farm. In Nairobi our offices are at Hermes House opp K.T.D.A Tom Mboya Street, Eldoret at Sham House opp Veecam house along Oloo Street and in Nyeri Next to Housing Finance along Kimathi Way.