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Diseases and Pests That Affect Oranges

Oranges are round citrus fruits with finely-textured skins that are, of course, orange in color just like their pulpy flesh; the skin can vary in thickness from very thin to very thick. Oranges usually range from approximately two to three inches in diameter.

Diseases in Oranges

  1. greasy spot in oranges

    Greasy spot.

It’s a fungal disease.

Symptoms

Yellowish-brownish blister spots on leaves, often on the underside of the leaf.

Spots develop into oily looking blisters.

Control

Timely application of copper based fungicide.

  1. Sooty mold.

sooty mold in citrus

It’s a fungal disease.

Symptoms

Leaves becomes black

This is as a result of honeydew secretions from insects such as white-flies, aphids and mealy bugs.

Control

Use an effective insecticide and also spray copper based fungicide and where there is severe infestation spray again after 14 days.

  1. Citrus canker

It’s a bacterial infection.

Symptoms

Yellow halo-like lesions or scabs on the fruit, leaves and twigs.

Severe infections can cause leaf loss, blemished fruit, fruit drop and die back.

Spread

It spreads easily and quickly on air currents, insects, and birds and on humans by means of clothing and infected implements.

Control

Use copper based fungicide as a preventative measure. Destroy already infected trees to contain the spread of bacteria.

PEST AND DISEASES CONTROL IN TREE TOMATO (TAMARRILO) FARMING

  1. Root rot

It is caused by the soil-inhabiting fungus from the phytophthora species.

 Symptoms

Dark brownish patches of harden bark on the trunk of the tree.

The infected area is then left as a dark sunken canker.

Control

Remove all leaves and damaged fruit when it falls to the ground.

Prune off all lower branches off the tree so that the tree branches are more than 2 feet from the ground.

Spray the tree with an effective fungicide.

Pests Affecting Oranges

  1. Aphids

aphids on oranges

They sack the sap out of the leaf.

There is yellowing and the twisting of the leaves, which gives the appearance of deformed leaves. As the severity of the aphid infestation increases, leaf drop and twig and branch die back.

Control

For effective control of aphids use an insecticide e.g. prosper and make sure the underside of the leaf is sprayed thoroughly.

  1. Red mites

They are extremely tiny pest and red or purple in color. These mites infest leaves and fruit. Intense infestations during hot, dry weather can cause leaf drop.

Control

Spray an effective insecticide e.g. karate.

  1. Citrus leaf miner

They feed within the leaves creating distinctive silvery tunnels or ‘mines’.           

Damage is usually worst when there is new flushing particularly on young trees below three years old.

Control 

Spray an effective insecticide e.g. karate.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Causes of Scarring Of Citrus Fruits such as Oranges and Tangerines

Fruit farming in Kenya is gaining momentum day by day. The most common fruits grown in Kenya include oranges, tangerines, mangoes, avocados, bananas as well as passion. Growing your own oranges at home is fun and money making at times. Whether growing outdoors or in containers, watching the trees flower and begin to produce fruit is quite exciting. If you are growing fruits commercially, you may have noticed that the market requires clean and good-looking fruits. However, this is sometimes not possible as your citrus fruits might be scarred or marked.

Identifying Citrus Fruit Scarring

Citrus fruit scarring is the result of damage done to the rind and/or flesh of the fruit while growing. Scarring of citrus fruit can occur for a variety of reasons, and when grown commercially, will often dictate which product (e.g. fresh eating, juice, etc.) the fruit will be used. Scars on citrus fruits are sometimes only cosmetic. However, in many cases, damage can be more severe and even cause the fruit to begin rotting. While some causes of scarring are preventable, others will need more care and attention to resolve.

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Causes of Scars on Citrus Fruits

There are different ways in which citrus fruits are scarred. The most common cause of scarring is the damage caused by insects. Since various insects may attack citrus fruits, proper identification is a key step in addressing the problem. To identify which insect may have caused damage to your fruit, take a close look at the scarring and look for any specific pattern or shape. The size, shape, and type of scar may provide key information as you begin to determine the culprit.

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Some common pests include: Citrus thrips, Citrus cutworm, Citrus Peelminer, Citrus rust mite, Forktail bush, katydid Potato leafhopper, Brown garden snails, and Caterpillars.

However, scarring may also be caused by weather condiions, such as hail or wind. Windy conditions may have caused developing fruit to rub or scratch again tree branches. These types of scars likely occur only on the surface of the fruit and, generally, do not compromise its quality. Lastly, chemical and equipment damage are sources of citrus fruit scarring that may need consideration. While uncommon in the home garden, large citrus operations may have issues with phytotoxicity, or chemical burn, among treated trees.
Now that you know about scarring in citrus fruits, don’t hesitate to invest in fruit farming. Contact us today for farm management, seedlings or consultancy.

 

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Citrus Fruit farming in Kenya: What you should Know

Growing citrus is a long-term investment, so it’s a good idea to be informed before undertaking this type of farming. These plants are large shrubs or small to moderate-sized trees, reaching 5–15 m tall, with spiny shoots and alternately arranged evergreen leaves. They Include;

  • Limes,
  • Sour & sweet oranges,
  • Lemons,
  • Grapefruits,
  • Tangarines

Ecological Requirements

The growth, development and production of citrus plant depends on the physical characteristics of the soil such as drainage, water-holding capacity, structure, soil depth, and the degree to which water can infiltrate the soil, among others. These characteristics however differ in the various soil types.

  • Citrus can be grown in a wide range of soil types. However, for best results, they should be grown in well-drained soils, which are fertile, well-aerated and with a pH of between 6-6.5.
  • Citrus trees should be planted in a sunny and wind-protected area, and in frost-free regions because they cannot tolerate severe frosts.
  • They can tolerate high temperatures provided the trees are well supplied with soil moisture.
  • Well-distributed annual rainfall of not less than 1000 mm is needed for fair crop.

Read: How to grow Williams Hybrid Banana

Planting

  • Clear the field and dig planting holes 60 x 60 x 60 cm well before the onset of rains.
  • At transplanting use well-rotted manure with topsoil.
  • Spacing varies widely, depending on elevation, rootstock and variety. Generally, trees need a wider spacing at sea level than those transplanted at higher altitudes. Usually the plant density varies from 150 to 500 trees per ha, which means distances of 4 x 5 m (limes and lemons), 5 x 6 m (oranges, grapefruits and mandarins) or 7 x 8 m (oranges, grapefruits and mandarins). In some countries citrus is planted in hedge rows.
  • It is very important to ensure that seedlings are not transplanted too deep.
  • After transplanting, the seedlings ought to be at the same height or preferably, somewhat higher than in the nursery.
  • Under no circumstances must the graft union ever be in contact with the soil or with mulching material if used.

Read: Pests and Diseases control in capscum farming

Maturity/Harvest

  • Upon Planting, Citrus matures and starts producing fruits after 3 years.
  • Depending on the climate, citrus fruits may take 6 to 8 months to ripen.
  • Citrus fruits will not ripen off the tree, so refrain from picking them too early.
  • The best indicator of ripeness is taste.
  • Harvest the fruit by cutting them off with pruning shears or by pulling the fruit stalk from the tree

 

 

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HEALTHY BENEFITS OF LEMON AND HOW TO GROW THEM

Lemons originated in India and are part of the citrus family. Lemons most likely were introduced in Kenya by Catholic Missionaries when they planted them in in their farms.

GROWING LEMONS

There are two main varieties of lemons acid and sweet. The acid lemons include: Lisbon and Eureka. The sweet lemons include: Meyer and Ponderosa. Commercially grown lemon trees can reach heights of up to 20 feet. Lemons are very sensitive to cold and must be grown in areas that are not prone to extreme cold. They also require full sunlight.

Lemons are not very particular in the type of soil that they are grown in. Many lemon trees are actually grafted on the sour orange root stock to make them hardier. Typically, a lemon tree is not grown from seed in the home garden instead a tree seedling will be bought from a nursery. Lemons may be grown in containers as well as in the ground. Lemon trees do not require pruning other than if cold damage is present.

NUTRITIONAL VALUES OF LEMONS

  • Serving size 1/2 cup, sectioned, peeled (106g)
  • Amounts Per Serving % Daily Value
  • Calories 30
  • Calories from Fat 5g
  • Total Fat 0g 0%
  • Sodium 5mg 0%
  • Total Carbohydrate 10g 3%
  • Dietary Fiber 3g 11%
  • Sugars 3g
  • Protein 1g
  • Vitamin A 0%
  • Vitamin C 90%
  • Calcium 2%
  • Iron 4%

HEALTH BENEFITS OF LEMONS

Lemons are very high in Vitamin C with a half a cup of juice containing 100% of the RDA. The Vitamin C in lemons is in the form of citric acid which has been shown to help improve the absorption of calcium by the digestive system.

Lemons also contain unique flavinoids and are high in antioxidants which can fight free radicals and cancer cells. The antioxidants in lemons also help with providing vascular protection and boosting the immune system.

Lemons are helpful in treating urinary tract infections, and many digestive problems. Lemon can also be used as a natural antiseptic on cuts.

HOW TO GET THE MOST OUT OF LEMONS

When choosing a lemon it is important to look for fruits which are firm and bright in color. Lemons that have a fine texture and feel heavy for their size typically produce the most juice.

A medium sized lemon produces approximately 3 tablespoons of juice and 3 tablespoons of grated zest. Both of which can be frozen for future use. In order to get the most juice from your lemons microwave them for about 15 seconds or roll it against a hard surface before juicing.

A fresh lemon should last about 2 weeks at room temperature; however, when stored in a plastic bag in the crisper of the refrigerator a lemon can last up to 6 weeks.

Lemons have a multitude of purposes. They are a great flavoring agent. They are beautiful to use as an edible garnish. They also are useful as natural cleaning purposes.

Read Also: WHY YOU SHOULD PLANT AND EAT MACADAMIA NUTS

CONCERNS AND CAUTIONS

Because of the exceptionally high content of Vitamin C in lemons it is important to monitor your daily consumption of Vitamin C in order to avoid intestinal discomfort and diarrhea.

Plant lemons today to supplement your income as well as boosting your health. Kindly visit our offices or contact us and let Oxfarm organic tell you more about lemons, where to grow and where to sell.