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Inter-cropping and Mulching in Tissue Culture Banana Farming

You can plant short-term crops, annual crops, legumes such as beans, and groundnuts or you can plant vegetables. This is what is referred to as inter-cropping and the crop you plant is referred to as an inter-crop. These can be planted at the same time with the bananas or within days.

Always consider the Spacing

As you plant these crops, make sure the cover crop is not too close to the planting hole where tissue culture banana seedling is. Leave about a foot especially for beans, which can grow from the hole in which it was planted, entangle and suffocate the young banana seedling.

If you want to have longer term intercrops, such as coffee or pineapples, these can be planted either before or after the planting of the tissue culture garden. Whereas it is fine to intercrop bananas with a perennial crop such as coffee or pineapples or cocoa, in case you want to do this, the spacing will need to be increased accordingly from the standard (2.5m-3m).

The spacing must be increased from 3m to between 3.5m-4.5m to allow more light penetration to reach the perennial intercrop (say coffee, cocoa or pineapples) when they have established.
If the distance between different stools is too small or standard (2.5m-3m), when the bananas grow, their leaves will shade off the intercrop and it will suffer from lack of sufficient light to manufacture its own food, and to grow healthy and give good yield.

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Excellent care

Whereas it is fine to intercrop with a perennial crop, you need to do this only if your primary enterprise is the intercrop rather than bananas.

In case your primary or focus enterprise is bananas, it is advisable that inter-cropping be done  with only short-term crops, and this can be done for two seasons, after which the banana canopy (leaves) will have closed up. After the first year, your efforts should shift to mulching the plantation for better soil nutrition and health.

Like animals, bananas need excellent care if they are to give you good returns—thus, you will need to invest in mulching your plantation—I mean thorough mulching.

Need nutrients

Mulching has several purposes: controls weed growth, protects the soil against heavy rainfall and intensive sunshine, prevents erosion in plantations on steep slopes, provides organic matter to the soil, stimulates root development, improves soil drainage, cools the soil, increases soil porosity (water and air penetration), and supports abundance of beneficial soil organisms such as earth worms and some useful fungi and bacteria, thereby improving overall soil health.

Bananas are heavy feeders and need a lot soil nutrients and water if they are to yield well. Thus, mulching helps in providing these soil nutrient and water requirements.

Due to high cost of buying and transporting mulching materials, it is important to use grass cleared during field preparation; use materials obtained from the intercrop; materials obtained from the plantation itself such as leaves, pseudo stem, corms; use organic matter near the plantation such as chicken droppings, pig and cow dung if you keep some animals.

Also, you can grow grasses such as elephant grass, Guatemala grass, and Kikuyu grass for your own mulch. The grass can both feed your animals as well as provide mulch for your plantation.

Not too close

Irrespective of the good roles of mulching, it is known to facilitate multiplication of pests and spread of some soil born diseases of bananas. It also encourages roots to grow upwards from the soil, resulting in hanging mats, which eventually can topple especially during stormy rains.

The phenomenon of banana plants becoming shallow rooted and hanging near the surface of the ground is called ‘high mats’. The moment it sets in, that marks the end of your enterprise as weevils will attack it too. Thus, never mulch too close to the plant itself when it has already fully established.

A young tissue culture seedling needs mulch around it, but an established banana mat does not, as its roots are already well established. Thus, always keep the mulch, and manure application away from the banana mat by about 2-3ft. The roots of the banana are long and can search for nutrients from a distance, thus do not worry that your plants will not get the nutrients.

Frequently Asked questions about Hass Avocado Farming in Kenya

Pros and Cons of Inter-cropping

Advantages of inter-cropping

  1. The enterprise starts giving early returns before the bananas start yielding and start giving returns.
    2. Weed control in a newly established plantation is easier as you kill two birds with one stone, that is weed the beans and the banana plantation too.
    3. The soil is protected against soil erosion, cover crop is used.
    4. If a legume such as beans is used, it adds nitrogen to the soil making it more fertile.
    5. If crop residues from the inter-cropping are used to mulch the crop, it improves soil nutrients and adds organic matter.

Disadvantages of Inter-cropping

  1. Soil nutrient depletion,
  2. Competition with bananas,
  3. May spread diseases and pests
  4. Damaging and injuring banana roots when digging in the garden, among others

It is, therefore, advisable that you do it only for the first year of plantation establishment, unless the inter-crop is your major enterprise.

For tissue culture banana seedlings contact us.

 

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How to grow Tissue Culture banana in kenya

Bananas are Kenya’s number one fruits. In some parts of Kenya, banana is a staple food. Of recent, whereas the banana is the favorite food, the crop has been faced by many challenges ranging from diseases and pests. Tissue Culture banana are affected by bacterial wilt disease that is today known to everybody that grows or has ever grown bananas. The weevils are also well known.
For the case of diseases, they are mainly transported from one garden/farm to another through picking young suckers for planting into a new garden.
Whereas you may see the plant and think it is clean or has no disease, because you cannot see the disease-causing agents with your eyes, you will be introducing the disease to your new garden. It is against this background that tissue culture planting materials are becoming the favorite planting materials for farmers who intend to grow bananas commercially.

What is tissue culture?

Tissue culture is the science of multiplying clean disease-free planting materials of different crops and you have many identical copies of the same variety without changing the taste and any other physical attribute of the plant.
This work is done in agricultural laboratories and then the plants are raised in nursery beds where farmers can buy them ready for planting.
When you plant these tissue culture seedlings of bananas, you can be sure that you are starting off with clean seedlings rather than planting what you are not sure about.
Consult any farmer that has grown them before and you will discover that they grow very fast, faster than the suckers which are picked from an old garden, and they yield earlier (between eight and 12 months from planting depending on variety), and that they yield bigger bunches.
Because they are small, tissue culture seedlings are more convenient to transport. They will grow uniformly, and you can plant as many acres of a garden of the same variety unlike the old method of picking suckers from a neighbor’s garden where you may not get enough of the same variety and in most cases, you can pick wrong varieties.

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Procedure of planting tissue culture banana seedlings

  • Tissue culture banana seedlings are bought when they are ready to be planted in the garden, so you need to have your garden ready by the time you go to pick them from us. After your field is prepared, you dig the holes (1.5-2ft x 1.5-2ft x 1.5-2ft). The deep hole helps reduce formation of high mat and risk of the plants toppling (falling) in the advent of wind.
    Rows should be in straight lines and if on a hill side, planting should be along the contours to minimize soil erosion.
    As you dig the hole, the soil you remove is separated, top soil (black) separate and subsoil (red soil) separate.
  • After that, you put well decomposed manure (three to five kilograms) in each hole and you can add one hoe-full of the red soil and mix properly.
    Do not return too much soil in the hole (so do not refill the hole). When all the holes are ready, and with manure in, you then can pick the plants from the company selling them and transport them straight to your garden.
    If you cannot plant on the same day, you can off load the plants carefully and keep them under shade for planting the next day, but make sure you water them that evening.

Planting Tissue Culture banana

  • Planting should never be done in a field that already has bananas. This to avoid pests and diseases. Planting should therefore be done in a clean field preferably a virgin one where bananas have not been planted in the last 2-3 years.
    The exercise of planting tissue culture banana involves splitting of the polythene paper pot holding each while holding the soil carefully. Then, using your hand or a simple garden tool such as a panga, make a smaller hole in the manure/soil mixture at the bottom of the hole and place the seedling in this small hole.
    Then compact the soil by pressing using your hands to make the plant hold firm in the soil.
  • Water the plant with about half-a litre of water and if possible mulch around the plant with grass inside the big hole (mulching could be done before the plants are brought when you are preparing the holes after putting manure/soil mixture).
    Depending on its size, the seedling will most likely remain deep in the hole but this is okay.
  • The remaining big hole will serve to collect any rain water and other soil nutrients brought by runoff to feed this plant and make it grow healthy. If the season is dry, check on your plants regularly and water them, if necessary.

Planting population

If you are planting say 1 acre, the recommended number of plants is 450 plants but for a higher plant population and for commercial purposes, you can plant 640 plants per acre.
If you plant 450 plants per acre, the distance between holes is 3 metres by 3 metres. If you choose to plant 640 plants per acre, the plant spacing is 2.5 by 2.5 metres.

If you need Tissue culture banana seedlings, don’t hesitate, contact us today.

 

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Improving banana farming in Kenya through Value Addition

In Kenya, bananas are one of the most common fruits. Banana farming is one of the most lucrative sources of income for farmers with more than 10M tons being produced in East Africa where most of them are grown by small-scale farmers.

Banana in farming in Kenya is in most cases grown in Eastern, Central, Western as well as coastal regions. The excess bananas are sold in local market for cooking or as fruits when ripe. However, farmers in Kenya continue to suffer due to poor harvest and through transportation as bananas require intensive care while transporting. However, bananas can be added value and expand their demand and value. Some of the value addition that we recommend are very simple and can be done by the farmers at the farm as they require less time and other factors of production and the profit is great. Below are some of the value additions that we recommend;

Read: Some of the best fruits to grow in Kenya

Banana flour

Farmers in Kenya, can process banana to make banana flour. The banana flour has great potential for commercialization due to its numerous uses and health benefits. The banana flour can either be fortified or used as it is to make nutritious porridge and when mixed with other flours it can make a variety of dishes such as chapati, mandazi and banana cakes.

Processing Method

  • Remove green bananas from the bunch.
  • Slice into small pieces with the peelings so as to maintain the nutrients in the peels.
  • Sun-dry on the rack, until 10% moisture content is achieved. You can test by gently pressing the cuttings.
  • Mill and sift
  • Package and store in a closed, dry place.

Banana Crisps

Bananas can be used to make crips just like we make potato crisps. If you are a farmer and you can manage to make crisps, you will smile all the way to the bank.

Processing method

  • Pill green bananas
  • Chop your bananas
  • Dipfry the chopped pieces
  • Pack and label them.

Banana Jam

Sometimes when you have a lot of bananas, they overripe and we are tempted to throe them away. This should not always happen as with the most basics of equipment; a farmer can turn his or her bananas to a sweet and enjoyable jam. Bananas with sweet taste, fine flavor and texture can be processed into excellent jam right in the farmer’s kitchen, both for domestic and commercial use.

Read: How to achieve success in a given agribusiness venture

Processing Method

  • Mash the bananas and put in a heavy saucepan with lemon juice, and honey.
  • Heat the mixture until it simmers over medium heat and then turn to low. Simmer for 20 minutes, stirring every five minutes or so.
  • Turn off the heat and let it cool until it is cool enough to taste.
  • Let the jam cool completely to room temperature – it will thicken up as it cools.
  • Package and store in the fridge for a week or less.

As a farmer, you can experiment with various flavours like vanilla, cloves or cinnamon depending on the tastes of your customers.

Banana Juice

It can be hot sometimes in Kenya and we all enjoy fruit juices. However, getting a fruit juice that is fresh and free from chemicals is hard. Banana juice/smooth can be very tasty, refreshing as well as healthy.

Processing Method

  • Put ripe sweet bananas into a blender.
  • Add milk.
  • Cover blender and run it on low for 10 seconds.
  • Put orange juice into a small bowl or a cup.
  • Add honey to the cup.
  • Stir to mix them well.
  • Add the honey mixture to the blender.
  • Cover the blender and run it on low for 30 seconds.
  • Package and store the juice in dry cool place

Bananas can also be used with other products to make sweets, biscuits, wine, beer as well as sauce. By so doing, farmers can earn more money and satisfy different tastes of consumers who do not like eating raw bananas.  To improve their bargaining power farmers should be organized into grower’s associations. Establishing factories to process bananas into various products; improvement of infrastructure to ease transportation of bananas. There is also need for government and other shareholders to help farmers with knowledge and finances and empower them in this world of bananas agribusiness.

Read: How to write a business plan for your agribusiness venture/dairy farming/horticultural farming

Don’t just grow bananas, value add them!.

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How to grow “Williams” Hybrid Banana

The banana is one of the most produced and commercialized fruits in the world. Suckers spring up around the main plant. The eldest sucker replaces the main plant when it fruits and dies, and this process of succession continues indefinitely. Tender, smooth, oblong or elliptic, flesh-stalled leaves numbering 4 or 5 to 15, are arranged spirally, and can be up to 2.7 m long and 60 cm wide. The inflorescence, a transformed wing point, is a terminal spike, shooting out from the heart in the tip of the stem. 

Ecological Requirements:

  • Altitudes – Altitudes of below 1800 m above sea level are generally recommended for the production of bananas.
  • Temperature – For optimal growth, bananas require a warm humid climate. An average temperature of 20°C to 30°C is required. Below 20°C, normal plant growth is retarded. Lacatan and Valery tolerates cold weather better than other varieties. Cooler areas (higher altitudes) slow down plant development and the inflorescence may also fail to emerge.
  • Rainfall – Bananas can grow well with an annual rainfall of 1000 to 2500 mm. optimal yields require a well distributed annual rainfall of 1400 mm or more, without long dry spells.
  • Soils – Bananas can be grown in a wide range of soils as long as there is good drainage and adequate fertility. They can tolerate short periods of flooding but do require good soil aeration. Light to medium, well drained loam soil is the best. Fertile deep soils rich in humus should be chosen wherever possible. For best growth, a pH range of 5.5 to 6.5 is recommended.

Spacing

The spacing depends on the variety, soil fertility level, and rainfall (water availability). The following spacing is recommended under a five-year cycle on a fertile soil with adequate rainfall:

  • Short variety (Dwarf Cavendish, Giant Cavendish) 2.5m × 3m.
  • Medium variety (Valery, Williams) 3.0m × 4.0m
  • Tall variety (Lacatan, Poyo) 4.0m× 4.0.

Read: Factors that determine the success of dairy farming

Planting

  • A planting hole measuring 90 cm ×90 cm × 60 cm is recommended although this may vary depending on water availability. In dry and semi arid areas it is recommended to use larger holes measuring 90 cm × 90 cm × 60 cm. the topsoil and the subsoil should be kept separately. Mix the topsoil with one bucket (about 20 kg) of well decomposed manure and 150 g of TPS. Refill the hole with the top soil first followed by the sub soil.
  • To ensure good anchorage, a sucker or a corm with the eyes facing upward should be placed 30 cm deep in the planting hole. A heavy cover of mulch should be placed around each plant to conserve soil moisture. Under rain fed conditions, planting should be carried out only at the onset of the rains. However, if irrigation water is available, planting can be done throughout the year.

Read: make money through passion fruit farming

Maturity/Harvesting

  • The time for planting to maturity of a banana depends on area and variety. A plant takes roughly 8 to 12 months to mature. Maturity indices vary widely among varieties. Angularities or fullness of fingers, as well as color change are some of the standard criteria used. Immature bananas are very angular but fill out to a rounded shape at full maturity.
  • Fruits are ready for harvesting 90 – 150 days after fingers start to form. Fingers are considered mature for harvest when they are ¾ round (75% maturity)
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WHAT FARMERS SHOULD KNOW ABOUT TISSUE-CULTURE BANANAS

Thanks to increasing demand and enticing market costs, banana farming is gaining momentum. till recently, use of standard suckers as planting material has been the sole choice in banana farming. This methodology is most popular by several farmers. As a result, it needs less inputs and therefore the suckers are often planted forthwith within the field. However, the most plight with this sort of planting system is that the bananas simply suffer from pests and diseases like wilt disease, Sigatoka and microorganism Xanthomonas wilt (BXW).

Banana weevils and nematodes also are common in crops planted from suckers. moreover, virus like banana streak and clustered high sickness also are unfold through suckers. Given these inadequacies, the standard banana farming ends up in high mortality rates within the field. If they establish, they take long to mature and therefore the yield is often low. To deal with this downside, tissue-culture bananas are introduced.

Tissue-culture technique, well-known as micro-propagation, permits multiplication of uniform and top-quality plant clones since they inherit the properties of the parent plant physically and genetically. Through this method, additional saplings are made inside a brief time while not the method of pollination. As a result, healthy, virus-free and uniform seedlings are made. however most of the people mistake tissue-culture for genetically changed product.

 

Development of tissue-culture bananas

Oxfarm seedlings
Banana-Tissue-Culture farming in Kenya

Tissue-culture plantlets are made below sterile conditions in an exceedingly laboratory for a few weeks. The plantlets are then hardened in an exceedingly greenhouse for 6 weeks. Notably, tissue culture races the multiplication method considerably and up to two thousand. Healthy bananas are often made from one shoot through this methodology. standard bananas, on the opposite hand, manufacture ten suckers in six months.

Similarly, tissue-culture bananas manufacture fruits in 340 days as compared to 420 days for normal bananas. The common hectare yield for tissue-culture bananas is 30-40 tons, doubly the yield for ancient breeds. Uniform growth and virtually synchronized maturity can facilitate correct management of harvests, improve quality of the merchandise and facilitate estimate a stronger output price.

Production and Market of Tissue-Culture Banana

Production and selling of tissue-culture bananas are so additional economical. To reap full edges from the tissue-culture technique, a farmer should have giant quantities of unpolluted and superior planting material, promote smart farm hygiene practices through correct management of the crop. This can decrease the yield losses thanks to pests and diseases.

Further benefits accruing from the prevalence of the planting TC banana is its early mature and maturing amount, larger bunch weights and the next annual yield per unit of land. Standard planting materials carry pests and diseases from the mother plant. However, there are means that to scale back cuss load before planting.

Tissue-culture plantlets, on the opposite hand, are free from pests, plant and most microorganism pathogens. If they need been properly indexed, they ought to even be freed from viruses. However, they’re simply infected with pests and diseases if transplanted in troubled soils.

Tissue-culture plantlets are dearer than standard planting materials and will not be promptly accessible, as several counties don’t have the facilities to supply them. Moreover, the number of cultivars sold-out by the laboratories is mostly restricted. Tissue-culture plantlets conjointly need acceptable management practices right when being transplanted to the sphere.

Growing Tissue-Culture Bananas

The farm must have the correct conditions for the expansion of bananas, that act from associate altitude of one, 800 meters higher than water level and a minimum rain of 1000mm per annum, that is especially essential throughout flowering. Farmers in low rain areas ought to make sure that irrigation is completed throughout. Soils ought to be fertile and well drained to avoid water work.

Farmers will get these plantlets from licensed nurseries half a month before planting, pits of 3 feet by 3 feet by 3 feet ought to be ready.  Dirt ought to be separated and well rotten manure mixed with the soil, fertilizer and therefore the suggested nematicide. The banana hole ought to be stuffed with the mixture, and therefore the plantlets planted 30cm deep within the hole.

The soil ought to then be firmed. Dry mulches ought to be put to retain wet whereas significant banana stems ought to be supported to avoid injury. Recent pathological leaves ought to be removed because of de-leafing ensuring healthy growth. Harvesting begins when 15-18 months, and a light-weight shiny look means the banana is prepared for harvest.

Harvesting ought to be delicate to avoid bruising of the bananas. The fruit ought to be quickly hold on in an exceedingly cool, dry place wrapped in banana leaves or grass to avoid bruising. If for export, they ought to be washed employing a disinfectant and branded. it’s apparent that tissue-culture bananas have several benefits over standard suckers. However, there are hurdles that limit widespread uptake and best use of tissue-culture technology among granger farmers.

Related Content: Make money through passion fruit farming

 

Distribution of Tissue-Culture bananas

Distribution systems of tissue-culture plantlets to farmers is one key obstacle. Plantlets are typically distributed in giant quantities at supported costs by varied development partners, however this is often not property within the long-term. Tissue-culture plantlets are fragile, and their thriving depends on smart management by nursery operators and farmers, particularly within the early stages. To add it up, Kenya’s comparatively stable economy and every year spherical season holds nice potential for the native and export markets.

Tissue-culture bananas will facilitate increase production of this in style fruit. solely four per cent of banana exports originate from continent whereas the rest of the plantlets is big within the continent. This inequality may be a wonderful chance for farmers to produce their fruits to greater markets.

Also Read: GOOD RETURNS THROUGH HASS AVOCADO FARMING

Contact our offices for more information.

 

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Why Modern Farmers Are Growing Tissue-Culture Banana In Kenya

Bananas are one of the most popular fruits on earth. In Kenya, the fruit is expansively cultivated for income generation and as a staple food by various local communities. However, the main predicament with banana farming in Kenya is that they are easily affected by diseases that reduce the yield and lead to sustenance and profit loss to the farmer.

Diseases and pests that affect banana farming in Kenya include Fusarium Wilt and Sigatoka, weevils and nematodes, and bacterial infections such as bacterial Xanthomonas Wilt (BXW). Additionally, viruses such as banana streak and banana bunchy top disease cause diseases to bananas.
To advance economic development and agriculture in Kenya, it is important to take on farming technologies that involve providing planting materials that are disease free, mature faster, have better yield, and are safe for human consumption. Tissue culture bananas grow faster and give higher yields as compared to traditional bananas and meet the above-mentioned requirements. Tissue culture technique involves generating plants from stems, leaves or roots in sterilized conditions and can be produced in plentiful quantities.

The distribution of TC bananas plant lets that are virus indexed is available at nurseries. The technique is also beneficial in helping plants such as bananas that do not generate seeds to reproduce. As earlier mentioned, prevalent viral diseases affect banana farming, and Tissue culture is being used by Kenyan researchers to produce disease resistant materials. The cultured plants are genetically uniform, high-yielding and are free from diseases. This directly improves the economic benefit per unit area of land.

In the late 90’s, with the introduction of TC bananas, research institutes were the only source of TC bananas and there was no stable supply in the country. This limited supply made TC banana plantlets too expensive which made farmers stick to getting suckers from the parent plant to propagate the crop.

Intervention by AH and Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) has made banana farming so popular that the government launched the National Banana Development Strategy to see the growth of the industry. Income from TC bananas is even expected to reach 30 billion in 2020 if it extends to all the areas within
prospective.

Development of Tissue Culture bananas

After generation under sterile conditions in a laboratory for some weeks, the banana plantlets are hardened in a greenhouse for six weeks. Notably, tissue culture speeds up the multiplication process drastically and up to 2000 healthy bananas can be produced from a single shoot through the method. Conventional bananas, on the other hand, produce ten suckers in 6 months. Also, TC bananas produce fruits in 340 days as compared to 420 days for ordinary bananas. Additionally, the average hectare yield for TC bananas is 30-40 tones that are twice the yield for traditional breeds.

How to grow TC bananas
The farm must have the right conditions for the growth of bananas.

  • Bananas do well from a sea level of 1800M with a minimum rainfall of 1000m per year which is pertinent during flowering. Farmers in low rainfall areas should ensure that irrigation is done throughout.
  •  Soils should be fertile and well drained to avoid water logging. After these conditions are met, the farmer should get the plantlets from any ATL nursery or through Oxfarm Organic Ltd.
  • Half a month before planting, pits measuring 3feet x 3feet x3feet should be prepared.
  • Subsoil and topsoil should be separated, and then 40 kg of well rotten manure should be mixed with the topsoil along with 200g of fertilizer and 15g of the recommended nematicide.
  • The banana hole should be filled with the mixture, and the plantlets should be planted 30 cm deep in the whole, and the soil should then be firmed. For crops under irrigation, 40 litres should be used initially then 20 litres, three times a week.
  • Dry mulches should be used to retain moisture while heavy banana stems should be supported to avoid damage. Old diseased leaves should be removed while de-leafing is important to ensure healthy growth.
  • Harvesting begins after 15-18 months, and a light shiny appearance means that the banana is ready for harvest. Harvesting should be delicate to avoid bruising of the bananas. The bananas should be temporarily stored in a cool, dry place and should be wrapped in banana leaves or grass to avoid bruising.
  • If for export, they should be washed using a disinfectant and might require branding.

 

Oxfarm Tissue culture Banana seedlings

TC Main Varieties
i) FHIA 17
The taste is very like matoke and it has been quickly accepted as a cooking variety and secondary as a dessert type. With its high resistance to diseases, infestations and a lower cost of production as compared to local varieties, FHIA 17 is one of the most famous TC varieties.
Attributes Of The FHIA 17 Variety

  • The plant has a high level of resistance to Black Sigatoka disease
  • A strong root system makes it withstand winds of moderate speed
  • Large bunch sizes as compared to local varieties
  • The plant grows well in most soils
  • Tolerant to borer weevil

      Why Agro Processers and consumers prefer it

  • Easy to peel and oozes very little latex
  • The fruit cooks very easily
  • Has a good texture and flavor when it is boiled
  • Excellent for Agro processors (banana chips)
  1. ii) GRAND NAINE
    Characteristics
  • It is a high yielding Cavendish variety.
  • The plant grows to a height of 6.5 to 7.5 Feet.
  • The bunches can be harvested within eleven to twelve months from the date of planting the tissue culture plants
  • Each bunch will be having 10 to 12 hands with 175 to 225 number of fruits.
  • The fruits of Grand Nain Banana variety are delicious to eat and keeping quality of the fruit is high compared to native varieties.
  • Have long cylindrical fruits, with less curvature.
  • Attractive yellowish green color at maturity
  • It is internationally acceptable, both as fresh fruit and in processed form.
  • The pulp to peel ratio is more and highly suitable for processing.
  1. ii) William Variety

Characteristics

  • The pseudostem of Williams has dark brown, black or red streaks.
  • The rachis is only partly instead of fully clothed, with a long naked section of rachis and a crowded cluster of leaf-like bracts right above the male bud and very small neutral flowers just below the fruit.
  • The color of the bract internal face is yellowish. Male flowers are whitish with yellow tips.
  • Fruits are 15-23 cm long, slightly curved, and about 5 times as long as broad.
  • Their apex is more bottlenecked than for other Cavendish clones, especially before full maturity. Like other
  • Cavendish, they have a tuft of dead floral relicts at the tip.

Also Read;Fruit Grafting Provides Better varieties

Reaction to pests and diseases

  • ‘Williams’ is highly susceptible to black leaf streak and to Mycosphaerella leaf speckle.
  • It is resistant to Fusarium wilt race 1, but susceptible to race 4.
  • It was found to be susceptible to Radopholus similis.
  • ‘Williams’ is susceptible to Banana bunchy top virus.
  • Fruits are less susceptible to cigar end rot.

Reaction to abiotic stress

  • Williams’ has good tolerance to wind.
  • While it is not especially cold tolerant, ‘Williams’ can grow in cooler environments.
  • Low temperatures can induce choking in ‘Williams’.
  • Williams seems less sensitive to water stress than ‘Grande Naine.