Cattle Disease is a big challenge in the general success of any dairy farm. You may have learnt by now that dairy farming is one of the best agribusiness investment in Kenya today. Nevertheless, pests and diseases have still hindered many farmers from achieving their goals. Below are some of the fatal diseases and how to control them.
Mastitis cattle disease
In Kenya, Mastitis, or inflammation of the mammary gland, is the most common and the most expensive disease of dairy cattle. Although stress and physical injuries may cause inflammation of the gland, infection by invading bacteria or other microorganisms (fungi, yeasts and possibly viruses) is the primary cause of mastitis. Infections begin when microorganisms penetrate the teat canal and multiply in the mammary gland.
Treatment of Mastitis
- Success depends on the nature of the etiological agent involved, the severity of the disease and the extent of fibrosis.
- Complete recovery with freedom from bacterial infection can be obtained in cases of recent infection and in those where fibrosis has taken place only to a small extent.
- Such drugs as acriflavine, gramicidin and tyrothricin have now ceased to be in use, and have given place to the more effective drugs, such as sulphonamides, penicillin and streptomycin.
Anthrax cattle disease
It is a highly infectious and fatal disease of cattle, caused by a relatively large spore-forming rectangular shaped bacterium called Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax occurs on all the continents, causes acute mortality in ruminants. The bacteria produce extremely potent toxins which are responsible for the ill effects, causing a high mortality rate. The bacteria produce spores on contact with oxygen. Signs of the illness usually appear 3 to 7 days after the spores are swallowed or inhaled. Once signs begin in animals, they usually die within two days. Hoofed animals, such as deer, cattle, goats, and sheep, are the main animals affected by this disease. They usually get the disease by swallowing anthrax spores while grazing on pasture contaminated (made impure) with anthrax spores. Inhaling (breathing in) the spores, which are odorless, colorless, and tasteless, may also cause infection in animals and people. In the case of terrorism, large numbers of anthrax spores may be released into the air.
Symptoms of Anthrax
- Sudden death (often within 2 or 3 hours of being apparently normal) is by far the most common sign;
- Very occasionally some animals may show trembling, a high temperature
- Difficulty breathing, collapse and convulsions before death. This usually occurs over a period of 24 hours;
- After death blood may not clot, resulting in a small amount of bloody discharge from the nose, mouth and other openings
How to control and treat Anthrax
- Due to the acute nature of the disease resulting in sudden death, treatment is usually not possible in animals even though anthrax bacilli are clines. Treatment is of use in cases showing sub-acute form of the disease.
- In most cases, early treatment can cure anthrax. The cutaneous (skin) form of anthrax can be treated with common antibiotics such as penicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, and ciprofloxacin (Cipro).
Black Quarter (Black – leg) Cattle disease
It is an acute infectious and highly fatal, bacterial disease of cattle. It also infects sheep and goats. Young cattle between 6-24 months of age, in good body condition are mostly affected. It is soil-borne infection which generally occurs during rainy season. It is a bacterial disease caused by Clostridium chauvoei
Symptoms of Black Quarter
- Loss of appetite, Depression, Fever, and dullness
- Suspended rumination
- Rapid pulse and heart rates
- Difficult breathing (dyspnoea)
- Lameness in affected leg
- Crepitation swelling over hip, back & shoulder.
- Swelling is hot & painful in early stages whereas cold and painless inter.
- Recumbency (prostration) followed by death within 12-48 hrs.
How to Treat Black Quarter
- Penicillin @ 10,000 units /Kg body weight 1M & locally daily for 5-6 days
- Oxytetracycline in high doses i.e. 5-10 mg/Kg body weight 1M or IV
- Indcse the swelling and drain off
- Q. antiserum in large does, if available.
- Avil / Cadistin @ 5-10 ml IM
Foot-and-mouth cattle disease
The foot-and-mouth disease is a highly communicable disease affecting cloven-footed animals. It is characterized by fever, formation of vesicles and blisters in the mouth, udder, teats and on the skin between the toes and above the hoofs. Animals recovered from the disease present a characteristically rough coat and deformation of the hoof. In Kenya, the disease is widespread and assumes a position of importance in livestock industry. The disease spreads by direct contact or indirectly through infected water, manure, hay and pastures. It is also conveyed by cattle attendants. It is known to spread through recovered animals, field rats, and birds.
Symptoms of foot and mouth cattle disease
- Profuse salivation ropes of stringy saliva hangs from mouth
- Vesicles appear in mouth and in the inter digital space
- Lameness observed
- Cross bred cattle are highly susceptible to it
Treatment of foot and Mouth cattle disease
- The external application of antiseptics contributes to the healing of the ulcers and wards off attacks by flies.
- A common and inexpensive dressing for the lesions in the feet is a mixture of coal-tar and copper sulphate in the proportion of 5:1.
Ringworm cattle disease
This is the most common infectious skin cattle disease affecting beef cattle. It is caused by a fungus, and is transmissible to man. Typically the disease appears as crusty grey patches usually in the region of the head and neck and particularly around the eyes.
As a first step in controlling this cattle disease, it is recommended that, whenever possible, affected animals should be segregated and their pens or stalls cleaned and disinfected. Clean cattle which have been in contact with the disease should be watched closely for the appearance of lesions and treated promptly. Proper nutrition, particularly high levels of Vitamin A, copper and zinc while not a cure, will help to raise the resistance of the animal and in so doing offer some measure of control. Contact your vet and or feed store for products to treat this disease. Using a wormer will kill lice and help prevent cattle from scratching causing skin damage and a place for the fungus to enter.
Milk fever cattle disease
Milk fever cattle disease, also known as parturient hypocalcemia and parturient paresis, is a disease which has assumed considerable importance with the development of heavy milking cows. Decrease in the levels of ionized calcium in tissue fluids is basically the cause of the disease. In all adult cows there is a fall in serum-calcium level with the onset of lactation at calving. The disease usually occurs in 5 to 10 year old cows, and is chiefly caused by a sudden decrease in blood-calcium level, generally within 48 hours after calving.
Symptoms of milk Cattle disease
In classical cases, hypocalcemia is the cause of clinical symptoms. Hypophosphatasemia and variations in the concentration of serum-magnesium may play some subsidiary role. The clinical symptoms develop usually in one to three days after calving. They are characterized by loss of appetite, constipation and restlessness, but there is no rise in temperature.
Rinder pest Cattle Disease
Rinderpest is the most destructive of the virus diseases of cloven-footed animals, such as cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs and wild ruminants. Its control was a major issue till recently all over the world. Organized efforts over half a century have brought about a total eradication of the disease in the Western Hemisphere. The virus is found notable in the saliva, discharge from eyes and nostrils, and in the urine and faeces. It is present in the circulating blood during the febrile stage and is later concentrated in different organs, especially in the spleen, lymph nodes and liver. Outside the animal body, the virus is rapidly destroyed by direct sunlight and disinfectants. Cold preserves the virus. The virus is usually spread by contaminated feed and water. Lacrimation and redness of eye. Foul odour from mouth. Discrete necrotic foci develop in the buccal mucosa, inside lip, and on the tongue. Bloody mucoid diarrhoea is noticed
Treatment of Rinder pest
- Symptomatic treatment with penicillin, streptomycin, sulphadimidine and intestinal antiseptics has no action on the virus, but may help in the recovery of less severe cases of rinderpest, as these control secondary complications caused by bacteria.
Footrot Cattle Disease
Footrot is a common cause of lameness in cattle and occurs most frequently when cattle on pasture are forced to walk through mud to obtain water and feed. However, it may occur among cattle in paddocks as well, under apparently excellent conditions. Footrot is caused when a cut or scratch in the skin allows infection to penetrate between the claws or around the top of the hoof. Individual cases should be kept in a dry place and treated promptly with medication as directed by a veterinarian. If the disease becomes a herd problem a foot bath containing a 5% solution of copper sulphate placed where cattle are forced to walk though it once or twice a day will help to reduce the number of new infections. In addition, drain mud holes and cement areas around the water troughs where cattle are likely to pick up the infection. Keep pens and areas where cattle gather as clean as possible. Proper nutrition regarding protein, minerals and vitamins will maximize hoof health.