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Management Practices

Hass avocado farming has become the major project many farmers are undertaking in the country due to its high profit margin currently and in the future. The fruit being referred to as the Golden fruit. However, most farmers are not acquainted with the necessary information regarding Hass avocado growing till the production phase. Avocados are sensitive in terms of management hence the farmers should involve professionals in the production cycle. Professionalism refers to doing things right from the start that is; selection of quality and certified bodies, planting procedure, general cultural practices such as Fertigation, pest and disease management, pruning, harvesting and post-harvest handling of the produce.

Management practices are critical at every stage to boost the general production. The following practices are recommended to farmers;

  • Site selection

Avocados do well in drained soils with an altitude of 1000m-2500m asl with moderate temperatures of 180c – 250c. Avoid waterlogged conditions since hass avocado are susceptible to root rot.

  • Planting

Dig a hole 2ftx2ftxft and separate the topsoil with subsoil. During planting mix, the top soil with well decomposed manure and earthlee and return the mixture first in the hole to almost full. Make a small hole and put the seedling at the center, cover with the soil to the level of the soil nursery. Cover the seedling to make a ridge to allow water to flow free after irrigation. Water the seedling in the evening after planting.

  • Staking

This is essential to develop the tree leader early to establish the pyramid shape which is desirable in hass avocado production.

  • Irrigation

This is the crucial practice in the production phase. Before a farmer commences their projects they should give a priority on a clean source of water suitable for farming.

In avocado production, irrigation should be done 2-3 times a week depending on rainfall pattern. Excess watering should be avoided to prevent the root rot menace.

  • Mulching

This refers to the practice of placing grass straws around the tree to conserve the soil moisture. Mulches also decompose adding organic matter into the soil improving the soil structure, aeration, texture etc.

  • Weeding

Refers to the removal of foreign or unwanted plants around the field to minimize nutrients competition. Intercropping is encouraged for land utilization and nutrient balancing in the soil.

  • Pruning

Refers to removal of extra branches to create and develop a good framework with maximum production. Usually done after first harvesting (3years). However, nipping is usually done in the first two years.

  • Pest and disease management

This is the most crucial stage in crop development. Every farmer is required to start early monitoring for pests and diseases to identify controls through Integrated Pest Management.

Farmers require much knowledge in pest and disease management and hence should involve agricultural experts in their projects.

Common Diseases;

Phytophthora root rotTrees rot from the bottom/rootsPlant in well drained soilsAvoid excess irrigationPlant avocado trees on a ridge
Powdery mildewAsh like appearance on the leavesMaintain orchard hygieneUse mazao regain as a biocontrol
Armillaria root rotTrees start turning yellow and dry completely with timeSoil drench before orchard establishmentBurning plant remains of previous season and tree trunks.
BlightSevere and sudden yellowing Leaves browning and finally witherAvoid dump environmentSpray preventive products
AnthracnoseIrregular dark  sunken blotches on leaves and fruitsField hygieneUse copper based products such as Funguran, mastercop
PestSigns and symptomsManagement
Fruit flyAdultsUse of pheromone traps Biological pesticides
False codling moth Use of pheromone traps Biological pesticides
Mosquito bugs Use of pheromone traps Biological pesticides
Mites Early monitoring Field sanitation Avoid dusty Environment Spray preventive products

Effect of False Codling Moth in Avocado

Fruit fly


A farmer should use an Integrated system during the production to produce fruits suitable for export market. The system includes;

  • Physical and Mechanical control

Use of sticky traps, pheromone lures

Setting up controlled growing zones such as Greenhouses or shade nets for crops such as strawberries.

  • Cultural control

Weed management, minimal tillage, changing on irrigation practices, nutrient management

  • Biological control

Predators, Parasitoids, Entomopathogenic Nematodes, Entomopathogenic Fungi, Nematophagous Fungi, Beneficial Soil Fungi and Bacteria, Viruses

  • Chemical control

This is usually the last option in the control system when the pest/disease incidences have exceeded the economic threshold.

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Why You Should Buy Hass Avocado Seedlings from Certified Nurseries

Hass Avocado Seedlings in our Nurseries

Why hass avocado?

Hass avocado is preferred because of its greater yield and long harvest season. They have a tough skin and hence are not easily damaged during shipping and transportation.

Avocado farming is not new in Kenya. Most rural homes have an avocado tree in their farm and harvest twice a year. Globally, Kenya is the 6th producer of avocado. However, not most families do commercial avocado farming especially hass avocados. Most avocado trees in rural homes have little yields. Currently, the country produces about 115,000 tonnes of avocado per year. As more farmers venture into avocado farming, this set is expected to increase. Hass avocado is the most popular variety that has shown an upward trend as its demand in the export market increases and more people become aware of its health benefits.

Success in farming starts with high-quality hass avocado seedlings. With proper farming methods, you can enjoy a bountiful harvest and the amazing flavor of fruits. The yields of hass avocado trees are higher compared to other trees. A mature tree can produce more than a million flowers and blooms twice per year. It has a fast maturity and has a lifespan of several decades.

However, you need to be careful when buying seedlings. Purchasing seedlings from roadside sellers can ruin your entire avocado farming venture since they take longer to mature and only produce low yields. There are various reasons why you should buy hass avocado seedlings from certified nurseries. These include;

5 Reasons Why You Should Buy Hass Avocado Seedlings From Certified Nurseries

Quality assurance

Seedlings in certified nurseries are obtained through grafting, whereby two parts of a plant are joined together to form a stronger plant. These seedlings are of high quality and perform better than those from uncertified nurseries. Since quality management systems monitor the hass avocado seedlings in these nurseries, the purity of seedlings is ensured. High quality seedlings mean that if proper farming methods are employed, the trees will produce a large number of fruits that are of high quality.

best hass avocado seedlings for better production

Short maturity

Some seedlings from non-certified nurseries take ages to mature. In certified nurseries, you can beassured that the trees will reach maturity faster hence early flowering and fruit formation. It is therefore ideal for commercial purposes.

Risk management

Using certified seedlings gives the farmer a better chance at landing a good crop insurance deal.

Access to new opportunities

Certified hass seedlings enable farmers to access new opportunities since the proof the avocado variety can be provided. Also, farmers can easily access identity-preserved markets.

New genetics

Grafted seedlings in certified nurseries are tolerant to adverse climatic conditions and resistant to pests. Hass avocado seedlings from these nurseries are resistance to certain viruses, soil nematodes, and viruses. They are tolerant of harsh conditions such as drought and salinity.

Where to Buy

Hass avocado seedlings can be purchased from a certified nursery where farmers can be trained and get equipped with information on how they can take care of their seedlings to get the best performance. Farmers can also get information on phytosanitary conditions that are required for them to access the hass avocado export market. For farmers who want to venture into this lucrative business, they should consider purchasing seedlings from Oxfarm Ag Ltd who offer high quality, grafted seedlings that mature within a short period.

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The greatest challenge facing avocado farming

Following the increase in demand for avocado in the local and international market, farmers have been generating a lot of income.  Farmers in different parts of the country are tuning in to avocado farming to reap something from the profitable industry. In the export market, avocados are likely to be the game-changer crop, especially Hass avocados which are highly nutritious. In the recent past, Europe has been the most targeted market for Kenyan Avocados. China giving a nod to the Kenyan avocados in April was a major development that would boost the avocado market. The IX World Avocado trade show was well attended with many different stands and interesting speakers. According to recent reports, it is evident that big markets in Europe and China are showing more interest in the avocados. For instance, avocado exports to China and Europe have increased by more than 1000 times and the projection is still growing. The consumption of hass avocados has risen by 150% in Europe in one decade, which shows that there is a development in the avocado farming industry.

Yield Depends on Quality of Seedlings

Hass Avocado seedlings at Nursery In Ridgeways Nairobi

However, most farmers tend to copy what their neighbors are doing and end up getting disappointed when the fruits are mature and ready for sale. The farmers are not aware that the yield of the avocado trees depends on the quality of the seedlings, the variety, and proper farming methods. Despite the Chinese and European market being huge, it might not benefit all the farmers if they are not properly trained. This means that it will only benefit a small number of people. Although the industry is profitable, it still suffers several challenges which might affect the sales of Kenyan hass avocados in the international market.

The majority of avocado growers are small scale farmers with different methods of production and therefore the quality of the Kenyan avocados varies. There is also a lack of confidence in the international markets due to the claims that the packaging of Kenyan avocados is not strong enough. Initially, the international market for Kenyan avocados was dominated by French importers who exploited the Kenyan production to meet the rising demand in the European market and paying 20-30% lower than the other importers. The European Union has well-documented standards for avocados that China has also embraced even after giving Kenyan avocados a nod. For instance, the EU and China outline that the fruits should be clean and free from debris. Furthermore, they should be free from pests and diseases, the stalk should be intact and mature to enable them to ripen uniformly at room temperature. Also, they must undergo inspection and certification from KEPHIS. The greatest challenge that might face Kenyan avocados is the ability to adhere to international standards.  To prevent loses, farmers should ensure that they plant high quality and certified seedlings. They should employ professional farming standards to prevent their avocado trees from being affected by pests such as thrips, and moth insects. They are also susceptible to fungal diseases such as anthracnose, root rot, Cercospora, and scab. Anthracnose, Cercospora and Scab can be controlled using copper-based fungicides. Root rot can be prevented by getting high quality, grafted, and treated seedlings.

Demand Continues to Grow

The consumption of avocados locally and international continues to grow every year. Most hotels have avocados in their menus which means that the demand is quite high. To produce quality fruits, it is the high time farmers employ good agricultural practices to ensure that their fruits make a kill both in the local and international markets. Farmers should get the necessary training to produce something that meets international standards. Quality seedlings that are resistant to diseases can be acquired at These seedlings also can withstand harsh weather conditions.


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The Definitive Guide On Hass Avocado Farming

Hass avocado farming is gaining popularity in Kenya and the entire world day by day. Grow yours today and you will never regret as the demand of the fruit keeps on rising. Be patient about seeing fruit. If you have purchased and planted our seedlings, you can probably expect to see your first fruit 2-3 years after planting. If you are growing from seed, it can take anywhere from 5 to 13 years before the tree is mature enough to set fruit. When the tree does flower, expect a lot of flowers to fall from the tree without setting fruit. This is natural. Patience pays, however with our certified seedlings you don’t have to wait for long.

Read Also: Pros and Cons of Chicken farming in Kenya

How to Plant

• Before you plant, ensure your cultivar is right for you and your site and for you – they vary significantly including tree height, hardiness, fruit flavor, ripening and harvest time, and more.
• New trees should be planted on mounds 18 inches to two feet high, and six feet across, even when you have fast draining soil. Use a lot of compost manure in the planting hole, and the more mulch the better: With their shallow roots, avocados thrive in deep mulch. Never rake up the leaves – leave the leaves where they fall.
• Avocados do not do well in containers – they should be planted on the ground. To keep your avocado under eight feet, prune annually and don’t let it get out of hand.

Heat and Cold Protection

• Weather over 35 degrees Celsius may deter fruit set. Keep trees especially well-watered when it’s hot.
• If the temperature drops below 0 degrees Celsius, We recommend you put coffee hulls (available for free from coffee roasters), straw, leaves or another kind of mulch to cover the trunk six inches above the bud graft and/or cover with nursery cloth.
• If your tree suffers frost damage, the top of the tree may look dead. Dead material protects the lower branches from freezing. In spring, the dead stuff falls off and the new growth comes out.

Read Also: 5 Things to Consider When Thinking of Starting a Fish Production


• Bees are the prime pollinators of avocados. We recommend boosting their numbers in and around the trees during their flowering period to increase fruit set. Try bee-loving plants such as rosemary, or establish a hive near your trees.
• Planting both an A type such as Hass and a B type cultivar such as Fuerte, may dramatically increase fruit set
Site Selection
• If you grow a more tender variety outside your recommended zone, protect the trees when they are young and find a favorable microclimate on your site.
o Plant on slopes. This allows for excellent drainage to prevent root rot and increase frost protection because cold air sinks and accumulates on valley floors, bypassing the trees
o Avocados can do beautifully in the flats, especially in low frost areas with good sun and mild summers.
o Given the right care and conditions, Hass cultivars can grow and bear inland.

Harvesting Tips

• The best place to store fruit is on the tree. Some varieties hold their fruit well for up to six months, while others don’t. Picking fruit only when needed may extend the harvest period for many months. The longer avocados sit on the tree the higher the oil content.
• Avocados are mature before picking, but not ready to eat. They must be softened off the tree. The softening process takes from a few days to a week or even longer. To keep them from ripening, refrigerate them. To speed up ripening, put them in a paper bag with an apple or a banana.
• Given the space, you can harvest all year round by planting varieties that ripen successively, since different avocado varieties flower and set fruit at different times.
• Once avocados get really big, they are unruly. To harvest, you must climb up to the tree’s extremities with your fruit picker.
• For easy harvest, keep trees below 12 feet.

Also Read: How to Be Smart in The World of Agribusiness

Learn from the best, contact us and we will advise you as well as provide you with seedlings.

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Hass Avocado Farming: What Exporters Expect from You

As demand for hass avocado grows regionally and internationally, there’s no short cut for farmers seeking the simplest market and costs. One should twig right as hass avocado farming  it involves varieties, seedlings and fruits, particularly if you are looking for an export market.

It is necessary for a farmer to start out with clean and prime quality planting materials to urge higher yields. The export market needs quality manufacture, that’s why it’s not advisable to shop for seedlings from unqualified sellers.

Hass avocado tree can be irrigated through drip pipes, and water should always be obtainable. For export quality, the tree ought to be planted in five by five meters spacing or there around, in between the areas one will grow weeds or vegetables to manage soil erosion and to draw in useful insects.

Besides, the hass avocado plant would like enough sunlight throughout flowering. Farmers, therefore, should enable light-weight penetration and management of pest and disease. Before planting avocados, one should conduct a feasibility study on the planned farm before investment. You would like to think about water accessibility, the soil characteristic and therefore the prevailing climate conditions.

Related Content: Commercial Kiwifruit farming in Kenya

Kenya’s Advantage Over Different Countries

Kenya presently produces two hundred,000 metric tons (MT) of the fruits p.a. however solely exports sixteen,000MT. Israel, on the opposite hand, produces a hundred,000 metric tons of the fruits however exports sixty per cent of the full.

The United States is presently the foremost dominant marketplace for avocados followed by Europe and therefore the region Asia. The regions are provided by farmers from the geographic area, African nation, Spain, and Israel. Kenya lags in avocado export because of the fruits lack uniformity. Most countries in Europe not settle for the Kenyan avocados because of challenges that farmers will simply avoid, together with fruit form.

How to handle export hass Avocado

packaged hass avocadoAvocado will just grow well all in all areas of the Kenya except the coastal region because of salinity. Export market demands fruits of certain shapes and sizes, options which may solely be achieved through irrigation of the crops. Avocado farmers in Kenya don’t irrigate their farms as a result their fruits lack uniformity, some are too big, others are medium whereas others are smaller than the desired minimum. Customers at the export market like size 12 fruits with dry matter content of twenty-three per cent.

Another challenge with Kenyan Avocado farmers is that they pick their fruits too early, therefore, they take too long to mature. Native Avocado farmers have advantage over their peers in different countries because of Kenyan fruits gain the market at the time when none of the leading producers have avocado fruits.

“If avocado farming in Kenyan is professionally done, then it will be another success rather like flower farming because of its gathering window which fall at the best time for Europe.” one of the exporters notes.

Also read: Farmers already earning more from Macadamia nuts and hass Avocados


Don’t wait, book your seedlings today. Visit our offices for guidelines and more information.


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Kenya is known to support its budget through agriculture majoring on exports of tea, coffee, flowers. However, Hass avocado is now getting a lot of attention. Kenya is in an ideal location for Avocado production since it’s in subtropical climates and avocados do well in such conditions.

South Africa and Kenya are major exporters of Avocados in Africa, with hass, fuerte, and pinkerton varieties. There is a countless potential for hass avocado production in Kenya due to its climatic conditions especially in central Kenya, upper eastern and rift-valley areas. Most avocado farms are near Nairobi, where packing factories are located for export.

Main avocado seasons for the Kenyan avocados is march to September but the fuerte one starts as early as February while the Hass is normally available from May. Nonetheless, due to the difference in climatic conditions and different avocado growing zones in Kenya, there are fruits throughout the year although in smaller quantities which are mainly sold locally.

Also, Kenya enjoys a competitive advantage over other exporting nations mainly because the hass avocado variety harvesting period extends later in the year than Peru’s, thereby granting Kenya a window of opportunity in the global market. Hass avocados from Kenya sell in European markets at roughly three times their domestic price, making the export options extremely very attractive.


Also Read: Hass avocado farming: Suitable Counties

More than 115,000 metric tons of avocado are produced in Kenya annually, where 70% are normally grown by small-scale farmers. Sometimes back, most avocados were traded locally, however, this trend has tremendously changed over time where now over three quarters of the produced avocados is exported overseas.

This drastic change can be attributed to technological advancements called `reefer` introduced by Maersk lines has made it possible to transport Kenyan avocados beyond the middle east to Europe markets.

Most farmers who grow Avocado are commonly found in Muranga, Kiambu, Nyeri, Kisii, Meru as well as Mt. Kenya regions. Over the years, Kenya has seen a sharp increase in the number of counties interested in Kenyan Avocados, and these countries are, Hong Kong, Russia, Singapore, Belgium, Germany, Netherlands, France, Egypt, Spain, Iran, Libya and many more. Leading exporters from Kenya include Mt. Kenya Avocado Farms.

The nutritional benefits of avocado are another boosting factor to its demand. All over the world people knows about its benefits and the wide variety of its uses. Guacamole food, with avocado as its main ingredient is very popular especially in America, greatly increases avocado consumption and importation.

Muranga county government through its Governor Mwangi Wa-Iria has started an initiative of encouraging its residents to embrace farming of hass avocados as a way of eradicating poverty as well as boosting their health. The national government of Kenya has also initiated programs that help in boosting the avocado industry to fully comply with the global requirements. Bodies like KEPHIS are actively involved in monitoring as well as educating farmers and exporters. In addition, other county governments are also helping farmers get good market rather than struggle with brokers who offer them low prices.

As you read this article today, more and more farmers are compelled to start growing Grafted hass avocados, which will triple the country’s production rates for exportation. The sky is not the limit for our esteemed farmers. The future belongs to you farmer who is willing to make your hand dirty!

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The most efficient way to water is to apply water when it begins to show signs of stress from lack of water. It’s paramount to avoid water stress unless it’s by design to induce it; lest one may incur massive crop loss on both quantity and quality. The following signs are indications of water stress;
• Footprints or tire tracks that remain in the grass long after being made
• Many leaf blades folded in half.
• If a soil sample sought from a profile 1-2ft deep is not pliable and sheds into soil droplets upon dropping to the ground.
• Premature fruit drop and/or flaccid fruits on trees.


• An efficient watering does not saturate the soil, and does not allow water to run off.
• Avoid extremes in watering frequency and amount. If you apply too much water, it runs off and is wasted.
• On the other hand, light frequent watering is inefficient and encourages shallow/restricted root systems.
• Typically, 2-3 irrigation rounds per week in the peak irrigation periods is ideal. If rainfall occurs, irrigation should be suspended depending on the rainfall amounts.


• The best time to irrigate is in the early morning hours and /or late evening. Watering during the day can be wasteful due to evaporation.
• Avocados require 8000-9000m3 per Ha for the whole year, including water supply from rain.
• The avocado trees have varied moisture requirement in amount depending on the prevailing physiological stage.
• Aspects/stages directly influenced by optimal water regime on avocados include; Flowering, fruit set, fruit drop fruit sizing and fruit quality.
• In central region, 50-60m3 suffices to supply adequate moisture to 1Ha of avocados in a 2 week cycle of irrigation in dry periods.
• In a week, 50-75 litres being applied per tree will supply adequate moisture to support the tree during peak demands.

Below is a guideline on irrigation calendar for the small-holder farmer:

DEC – MAR Fruit set and rapid expansion Irrigate fully until rain starts 25-35 liters per tree twice every week There must be no stress on trees
APR – MAY Fruit development Do not irrigate Rainy season
JUN – AUG Harvest Partially irrigate 5-10 liters per tree once a week Maintenance only
Sept-mid Oct Dormant period Do not irrigate Stress prior to flowering
Mid Oct-rains(Nov) Flowering and fruit set Irrigate fully 25-35 liters per tree twice every week There must be no stress on trees


• Install a drip line in the orchard to be served by a tank through gravity. Ensure the tank is raised and/or installed on higher ground.
• 2 drip lines to serve a row of trees.
• The tank can be filled with water by manually pouring using jericans or through pumping.

• Entails manually transporting water in 5, 10,15 or so liter containers sprinkling around the root zone.
• Care should be taken to avoid excessive water application that can lead to run-off.
• Water can also be applied using watering cans and these give a better distribution.

• This is important operation that helps retain moisture around the root zone.
• It’s important to maintain mulch around the tree always.


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Earn more than 10 million per acre with 40k investment.


Here at oxfarm we have old hass trees {request for a visit at our demo farm} that have consistently given us income like in the case of real estate, its called passive income. Once you set it up you do not have to worry, why because hass avocado farming require least form of management but be present during harvesting time for inspection and counting, why? ask me later.

We faced challenges during planting and even later when we thought all could be well another big issue came up. We were tricked and bought varieties which were not hass avocado. We had to top work our trees, we wasted two years due to what we say negligence. Please if you have to buy any type of seedling request to see whether they are certified with concerned authorities. This will not only save you money but most importantly Time, 2-3 years waiting then it turns to be otherwise is so demotivating.

Enough about us, we came up with the package few years back where we save our clients hard time during planting which require one to have knowledge on basic planting technique and if you have ever tried to plant hass seedlings then you do understand what we mean. Some of our clients who enrolled in this package have harvested severally and in this year most of them will sell their fruits at an average of Ksh 12-25 depending with fruit sizes. Some sell to us while others to other major exporting companies for exports.

Below entails what you expect from the package.

WhatsApp Us Here


Earn more than 10 million per acre with 40k investment.

Project: Hass avocado, contract farming
Cost: 40,500

What’s in 40.5k?

  • 150 hass avocado seedlings at a spacing of 17*17ft
  • Digging of holes 2ft by 2ft,
  • Soil Treatment with organic manure (earthlee)
  • delivery of seedlings and planting,
  • Market connection.

We start by first coming to your farm location to monitor and doing soil analysis to ensure that the project will be successful. The best time to do the project is during the rainy season either short or long rain, but in case you have an irrigation system you can do it any time. The best time to engage us is now to plan for the coming rain season. We do not charge anything for consultation the only cost is for transport to your farm at Ksh 20 per km from Nairobi for field visitation.


Hass Avocado Package

The least Forecaster returns for the first 10 years in a one acre land is as follows.

Return for an acre with 150 trees. (prices of hass fruit range between Ksh 8 – 30 in local market depending on size.


True to type Hass Avocado Fruit

• The first two years –growth stage
• 2nd year (harvest of 50 fruits per tree) – 60k
• 3rd year (harvest 200-250 fruits) – 240k
• 4th year – (400 fruits) – 480k
• 5th year – (800 fruits)- 900k
• 6th year – (1000 fruits) – 1.08m
• 7th year –(1100 fruits) – 1.3m
• 8th year –(more than 1300 fruits) – 1.5m
• 9th year – (more than 1500 fruits) – 1.8m
• 10th year – (more than 1750 fruits) – 2m

Total cumulative returns Ksh 10 million

by 20th year you expect?
• 20th year – (3500 fruits) – 4m

Note that:

We have calculated the prices of each fruit at a minimum price of Ksh 8 as of lowest in the local market, The prices go up to even Ksh35 per fruit (REF KAKUZI).

The life span of a hass avocado tree is more than 50 years, let your idle land become profitable by investing Ksh 40,000 in it and we will do the work for you or you can buy the seedlings from us each at Ksh 150. The good thing about hass avocado is that its market is growing each day and big companies like kakuzi and sasini have embraced this opportunity by planting thousands of their acres under hass avocado due to stability of the hass market and high returns. Rumors has it that our Vice President has planted acres due to the good opportunity the industry present. Then why not me?

The hass avocado is the least stressful form of farming because it’s a tree with least form of management you just have to visit your shamba when harvesting. Once you enroll in our package we will give you detailed information on our market, management practices, what you can inter crop with and recover your investment within some month’s.

Don’t miss this opportunity this short and long rain season we already have many acres under this project ongoing in Kenya.

Our contacts 0706222888 / 07236662773

WhatsApp us Here


Contact us or fill out the booking form we will contact you  CLICK HERE.

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