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Differences between yellow and purple passion Fruits

Passion fruit is tangy, sweet and delicious that has a low-glycemic index. Apart from being sweet, it is an antioxidant-rich fruit. They grow vigorously into climbing vines and can serve as green walls for your property. They are evergreen throughout their growing period, covering trellises and arches and hence can act as excellent privacy screens. However, they require maintenance and can be invasive. In Kenya, the yellow and purple passions thrive in different parts of the country. However, there are several differences between the yellow and passion which include;

Difference between yellow and purple passion fruits

Characteristics of Yellow passion

  • Has a large fruit with a yellow rind
  • Has a more acid flavor
  • It’s resistant to Fusarium wilt and nematodes
  • It has brown seeds
  • It has a more vigorous vine and more tolerant to frost
  • The flowers are self-sterile with heavy and sticky pollen and hence wind pollination is ineffective. Since their pollen is sticky and the flowers have to be pollinated, bees are the most effective pollinators.

Characteristics of purple passion

  • Has a smaller fruit with a purple rind
  • Has a less acidic flavor, a sweet pulp, and a higher juice proportion
  • It has black seeds
  • Has a less vigorous vine
  • It can self-pollinate and has light pollen. Pollination is, however, best under humid conditions.

When crossing purple and yellow passion, it is important to use the purple parent as the seed parent since the flowers of yellow passion are not receptive to pollen from the purple passion variety. Crossing the yellow and purple passion enables the plant to withstand the woodiness virus.

Best places to grow passion fruits

In Kenya, passion fruits are grown in Nyeri, Kiambu especially in Thika, Kakamega, Murang’a and Kisii. However, before engaging in passion farming, you should have your soil thoroughly assessed. The soil should be examined to identify the soil texture, type, depth, nutrient and nematode levels, and chemical analysis. They perform best in light to heavy sandy loams with good drainage and of medium texture.

Climatic and soil conditions

Yellow passion is mainly for the fresh fruit market and grows well at altitudes of 0 – 800 m. This means that it can thrive in the coastal region. On the other hand, the purple passion performs well at high altitudes of 1200–2000 m and barely flowers at altitudes of below 1000. It can perform well in high altitude areas such as Thika, Murang’a, Nyeri, and Meru. The yellow passion can be used as a rootstock for grafting of the purple variety.

Passion grows well at a pH of 5.5-7. It does not thrive in acidic soils, although lime can be applied to neutralize the acidity. To minimize the chances of diseases such as collar rot, passion fruits should be grown in well-drained and aerated soils. Passion fruits require adequate rainfall although it can be put under irrigation especially in dry areas. However, it does not require extreme temperatures and hence the vines should be sheltered especially in dry areas. The optimum temperatures for yellow passion range between 250C-300C and between 180C-250C. In extremely low temperatures, pollen does not germinate and the plants produce few flowers.

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Passion Fruit Farming In Kenya on the rise Again

The prospects of passion fruit farming in Kenya may change for the higher if plans to elevate the fruit into a significant farming crop are adopted by the Ministry of Agriculture.

This is once details emerged that Kenya’s production of the passion Fruit has been on the decline for the past decade within which no passion fruit exports visited Europe.

During a stakeholders’ forum for farmers, consumers and development partners, Fresh Produce Exporters Association of Kenya chairman Apollo Owuor said the country produced and exported passion fruit in massive scale within the 90’s and early 2000.

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However, since 2003 it declined principally owing to pest management challenges a number of that contravened European markets’ strict tips on pesticides residue, with Kenya’s passion fruit reported to contain higher than acceptable limits.

In Addition, Mr. Owuor said that there haven’t been efforts to revive the trade since, partially as a result of passion fruit being listed as a minor farming crop by the Ministry of Agriculture thus it’s not within the government’s policy for priority support.

Passion Fruit is listed as a minor crop

Agriculture Food Authority Horticulture Crops Directorate head Zakayo Magara acknowledged that as a result of passion fruit being listed aboard a hundred different minor crops and little has been in advancing a policy to market and boost its cultivation.

In effect, the Council of Governors Agriculture Committee, depicted by Anne Koech, a county govt member accountable of agriculture in Kericho County, created a commitment to support the elevation of the crop to major crops standing in order that resources can be allotted to its development in counties appropriate for its cultivation.

She said county governments ought to likewise subsidize its seedlings purchase to boost production and additionally produce market linkages to contour selling.

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Research has shown that passion fruit will grow anyplace in Kenya owing to convenience of sorts for each hotter and colder climate – yellow passion for lower, hotter regions and therefore a lot of common purple selection for the upper cooler regions.

Experts at the stakeholders’ forum noted that there’s potential for Kenya to be a world leader in tropical juice production owing to its year-round convenience of tropical fruits like passion fruit, mangoes and pineapples, being a rustic that may grow these crops in turn.

Through passion fruit cultivation, farmers will observe better financial gain.

(Source: Brian Okinda, Seeds of Gold; Jan 27,2018)

We have already started preparing for the long rains, Book your seedlings today. Seedlings are delivered on a first-come basis.

 

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Passion Fruits prices rise due to low production

The shortage of passion fruits for domestic and business consumption has sparked an increase in value because the entities attempt to satisfy their fruit desires.

The inequality in supply is clear from the margin of the price of passion fruits within the varied cities in Kenya. From a sample of seven cities, the wholesale price distinction between the very best and therefore the lowest if triple.

While a bag of 57kg of edible fruit is cost accounting Sh9,690 in Embu, identical amount is being sold at Sh3,000 in Kisumu city – the most cost effective.

Comparing the 2 cities, the inequality on the price per metric weight unit is about Sh118 – Sh170 in Embu and 53 in Kisumu- per Sokodirectory.

Nairobi is shopping for identical amount at Sh5,700 whereas Mombasa is paying Sh6,000 on wholesale, Kitale is that the second highest market after Embu shopping for the 57kg passion fruits at Sh6,600.

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passion fruit farming in kenya

The trend of the low supply of passion fruit has been perennial with soft drinks firms like Coca-Cola probing for the fruits from farmers with futility.

After the four to 5 months drought experienced in Kenya from the tip of 2016, solely farmers who had irrigation methods survived the disaster, and could have one thing to sell.

The shortage isn’t just for the fruits, however different vegetables too.

Passion fruit demand has many a time, been high as soft drink firms attempt to satisfy this raw-material. They’re forced to import the fruits, with a number of them importing in concentrates as a result of the passion fruit being limited internationally.

Kenya Agricultural Livestock Research Organization’s Horticulture Research Institute officer Peter Mburu said increased demand makes passion fruit a better agribusiness venture than maize, which on many occasions, does not repay the invested production costs.

On normal provide, a Kg of the passion fruits sells at about Sh80.

For grafted passion fruits, visit our offices. Book your seedlings now!!!!

 

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PASSION FRUITS PEST AND DISEASES CONTROL

Disease and pest management

In our farms we have had good and bad experiences when farming passion fruits. We have compiled some of the harmful pest and diseases that have led to big losses in our farms that we would like you to avoid and also have the knowledge on how to control them.

PEST

1. Mealy bugs:

These are small, oval, sucking insects with a cottony white waxy covering to their bodies. Infestation generally occurs on the tender floral buds and fruits. Adults and nymphs pierce the attack parts and suck the sap. The insect secrets a sugary substance over which a black coating develops. Such development interferes the food manufacture by the leaves and it downgrades the quality of the fruit.

2. The Passion Vine Mite

The passion mite may cause serious damage to the vines. Unless damage from these mites is checked the vines may die or the growth may be so adversely affected that there is a marked reduction in fruit. To the naked eye this mite appears as scattered, reddish patches on the lower surface of the leaves along the mid-rib and veins as well as on the fruit surface. The mites attack the young leaves and suck the sap, the affected leaves are generally curled. As a result a heavy infestation may cause complete defoliation and the plant may eventually die.

3. Fruit flies

These insect pests puncture the immature fruits while the rids are still tender. As the fruit enlarges a woody area develops around the puncture. If the fruit is still quite small and under developed, the damage may be sufficient to cause it to shrivel and fall from the vine. If the fruit is well developed, it may grow to maturity. At the time of opening, the area around the puncture has the appearance of a small woody crater which disfigures the outer appearance of the fruit but apparently does not impair the quality of the juice.

(e) Aphids

Aphids infest passion fruit and plants and suck the sap. On fully grown vines, severe damages seldom results. On seedlings, however, aphids may cause severe damage. Aphids are known to be efficient vectors of passion fruit woodiness virus, which is proving to be a serious disease of passion fruit in Kenya.

Routine Pest Control Measures

The control of pests, which attack the passion fruit, involves two basic problems,

(1) The destruction of insects which attack the plants.
(2) The preservation of the insects whose function in pollination is of vital importance to fruit plant.

The problem is complicated because both beneficial and destructive insects are so closely associated with the plant. The injurious insects must therefore be eliminated without destroying the beneficial ones. An approach to this problem is the proper timing of spray applications. Less damage to the beneficial insects, when a farmer schedules his chemical spray application during periods when the pollinating insects are not active.

We advice farmers on varius control measures to use when controlling pest in their farms.

PASSION FRUIT DISEASES

(1) Brown spot disease – Alternaria passiflorae

The disease is caused by fungus known as Alternaria pasiflorae; this is characterized by the development of brown spots and lesions on the leaves, stems and fruits.

The attacked stem normally turns brown and this leads to ring barking. As a result the functions of the plant tissues, which are responsible for carrying food from the leaves to the roots and vice versa, are interfered with and there is subsequent dieback. As the infection progress, the spots enlarge forming a series of concentric rings and the infected leaves and fruits may fall prematurely. The vines may wither from the affected parts upwards particularly after the stem has become desiccated. The quality may also shrink and drop from the vine. When the attacks are very severe, fruits begin rotting either from the stalk or from the bottom producing a brown color in the attacked parts.

The disease may infect vines of all ages. Humid conditions, accompanied by slightly higher temperatures than normal may accelerate the spread of the disease.

Control of Brown Spot Disease

(a) Field hygiene

This involves the constant removal of all infected material, which should be burnt at least once a week. The pruning frequency should also be increased during humid periods when the disease appears to spread very rapidly.

(b) Chemical control

Besides keeping the cines reasonably exposed to the sun by judicious pruning, regular spraying is very necessary to reduce losses where the disease is prevalent.

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(2) Woodiness disease

Virus causes the disease. The infection is characterized by grossly misshapen fruits, which show abnormal thickening and hardening of the tissues of the fruit wall and a reduced pulp cavity. The foliage becomes mottled with dark green areas localized on the raised portions of the leaves. The leaf color between dark green and the raised areas is yellow green (mosaic appearance). The leaves are frequently misshapen and reduced in size. In some instances there is lack of growth of the terminal shoot accompanied by a bunchiness of the harsch-textured terminal leaves. The disease is one of the most serious diseases of passion fruit and may curtail the commercial life of a vineyard. Aphids spread the virus, by at the transfer of sap from diseased to healthy plants during pruning and other cultural operations.

Control Measures

Fungal sprays cannot control woodiness, it is therefore recommended that plants showing typical symptoms of the disease be uprooted and burnt. Also ensure you get seedlings that are certified to avoid this disease. Plant hygiene measures should be practiced, especially during training and pruning. Pruning knives should be sterilized by use of appropriate disinfectant, both before and after use. Passion fruits should never be planted again in the same field or in the immediate vicinity particularly where a severe attack has occurred.

3. Fusariam Wilt

Fusariam wilt is serious disease in Passion fruit particularly the local purple passion fruit. The disease is soil borne, which means that the fungus lives in the soil from where it attacks the rooting system of the affected plant. The disease spreads upwards along the stem and one can easily recognize brown patches scattered on the stem. The brown patches can easily be mistaken for the brown spot disease and can only be diagnosed by an experienced person. Since the attack originates from the roots the transaction of water and minerals from the soil are interfered with, the plant starts to wither and eventually it dies.

Control Measure

There is no control of this disease once it attacks the plant. A farmer should uproot and burn it and never again to plant that passion fruit which is very susceptible to this disease on the same soil. We use the  Yellow passion fruit which is resistant to this disease, which is used as a rootstock against this disease.