One acre under Pawpaw can hold 450 plants at a spacing of 3 by 3 Meters. Let’s now take an approximation of one pawpaw plant producing a minimum of 50 fruits sold at the farm at a price of KSh 25 per fruit. The gross returns per acre during the year will be 450X50X25 = 562500. The total cost of establishing such an orchard is approximately 100,000 with production expected only in the second year. From the second year onward, the plantation can offer returns of regarding KSh four 562,000 per annum with a little maintenance value of about KSh 60,000 giving a gross margin/income of about KSh 502,000 per acre/ year. The investment pays back in a very short time because the crop grows considerably quicker than most alternative fruits taking about 9-10months to mature.
The pawpaw (fruit of genus Carica papaya) is a tropical plant typically grown in tropical climates. Pawpaws are general delicious fruits that are available all the year round in Kenya. The productive lifetime of a pawpaw plant is about 5 years. Thus, once you have established the plantation, financial gain can flow with very little effort provided you’ve got a prepared market. Pawpaw need warm to hot climates for growth and temperature vary from 21-30°C, and an altitude vary of 0-1600 m higher than water level, with annual downfall of about 1000mm that is equally distributed.
Pawpaw seeds are often directly planted into the farm at a rate of half-dozen seeds per hole then reduced to four plants per hole after germination, and step by step reduced the to 1 plant per hole after flowering so as to balance male and feminine flowers. Generally, pawpaw takes six months to flower and another 5 months to mature for harvesting. This makes a complete of eleven months. Thirty to a hundred and fifty fruits per tree are often attainable annually betting on the extent of management.
How huge is the potential for the fruits farming and export business in Kenya? You’re about to find out…
As millions of people around the world look for healthier and organic foods, fruits are growing in demand both locally and globally.
Apart from the millions of fruits that we eat at home in Kenya, many of us do not notice the huge volumes of bananas, avocados, pineapples, mangoes and several other tropical fruit varieties that are shipped to Europe, the Middle East and USA every week!
Kenya has a unique advantage to profit from this very lucrative market for tropical fruits which grow abundantly on our continent.
Why is the market potential for tropical fruits huge for Kenya?
In line with our tradition on Small starter, it’s important to us that our readers understand the market forces and economic opportunities behind every business opportunity we share.
Our research has identified three strong reasons why Africa’s future in the tropical fruits business is shining very bright.
Africa has a strong geographic advantage
More than 70 percent of fruits consumed on earth come from the tropics, which is why they’re called ‘tropical fruits’.
A very large portion of our dear continent is located in the tropics – a region that enjoys all-year-round sunlight and has a perfect climate for fruits to thrive and grow abundantly.
As a result, Africa remains one of the world’s largest producers of some of the most popular fruits on the planet – citrus, pineapples, bananas and many others.
Despite our continent’s huge potential to produce fruits for the world, a lot of fruits grown in Kenya are consumed locally.
Because fruits are highly perishable (spoil very quickly) and many farmers have little access to good storage facilities, Kenya currently exports less than 5 percent of the fruits it produces every year.
Due to the revelations by modern science about the health benefits of eating fruits and, millions of people around the world (especially in developed countries) now include some form of fruit in their daily diets.
Apart from their rich nutrient, mineral and vitamin content, fruits are now known to lower blood pressure; reduce the risk of heart disease, stroke, and probably some cancers; and help to lower the risk of eye and digestive system problems.
The growing consciousness in Western countries to adopt fruit-rich diets is one of the major drivers of the growing demand for tropical fruits which are abundant in Africa. As a result, countries like Ghana, South Africa, Ivory Coast and Kenya earn millions of dollars every year from fruit exports to Europe, the Middle East and USA.
According to the World Health Organisation, millions of people around the world still die prematurely from diseases associated with low fruit consumption. While this is sad, it signals a promising and lucrative growth in the demand for African tropical fruits now and in the future as more people add fruits to their diets.
A rapidly growing fruits juice industry
This rapid growth is driven by a rising preference by customers for healthy drinks (like fruit juices) over soft drinks (such as carbonated drinks – like Coke and Pepsi). There is also a rising demand for organic, super fruit and 100 percent natural fruit juices without any sweeteners and preservatives.
This means that in the very near future, producers will require more raw fruits to make a glass of juice.
As more manufacturers shop for fruits to produce more juice to serve the growing demand, Africa will become a huge supplier due to the abundance of fruits that grow on the continent. This added demand from fruit juice manufacturers is allowing farmers across Africa to process their harvested fruits into less perishable concentrates thereby reducing spoilage and earning them more money.
Make an effort today by calling us. We have all types of tree fruits. Book Now!
Paw paw fruit Farming in Kenya is done in tropical and subtropical climates and pawpaw plants do not tolerate freezing temperatures. Papayas fruits are delicious and grow throughout the year. These fruits are eaten alone or in salad without the skin. The papaws fruits are low in calories and high in potassium, vitamin A and C.
Papayas enzymes promote digestion easing constipation and it is efficient in controlling colon infections and colon cancer. The plants are short living perennial trees whose economic life is about 4 years, although the plants have a lifespan of up to 10 years. This means that papaws need to be renewed every 4-5 years for maintenance of an economic orchard. There are three groups of papayas distinguishable by their flowers (their primary sex) namely: –
Female plants –These fruit trees grow female flowers only. Female flowers are usually single blooms, bigger, and very close to the trunk.
Male plants –These grows male flowers only. Male flowers have long, thin stalks with several small blooms.
Hermaphrodites trees –These grows both male and female flowers. Therefore allow 4 plants per whole and later thin out to single trees when flowers appear. You may need to consult your gardening advisor for identification of the flowers.
The solo variety which produces small round sweet fruits with uniform size and shape. It is hermaphroditic and popular for both export and local market.
The mountain variety grows at high altitudes with small fruits only suitable for jam and preserves.
The sunrise variety that produces smooth pear-shaped fruit of high quality, weighing 400 to 650 grams.
The red royale that is an improved breed and give good quality yields.
Golden Caliman best suable if you want to export
The vegetative propagated papaya using tissue culture resulting in superior plants that are disease resistant, high yields and are easy to maintain and harvest since the trees are short.
Paw paw fruit Farming in kenya
Papayas require warm to hot climates for growth, and an altitude below 2100m above sea level, with annual rainfall of about 1000mm which is well distributed. The growing soils should be deep, well drained with adequate moisture, but not waterlogged.
Growing of Papayas is by seed which are extracted from sound papaw fruits and healthy trees. Seeds of Papayas may be direct sown or grown in a nursery first.
Papayas can be directly sown at 6 seeds per hole, and then thinned to four plants per hole after germination and reducing the plants to only one per hole after flowering. In plants where male and female flowers are born on different trees, male trees are allowed at the rate of 25:100 females as pollinators.
Prepare raised beds measuring 1m wide and any convenient length. Pawpaw seeds are sown at a depth of 1 cm in rows which are 15cm apart. Water the beds heavily before sowing the pawpaw seed and regularly thereafter. Young plants are ready for transferring to the field at a height of 10-15cm.
Plants are sown at a spacing of 3m x 3m in holes measuring 60cm wide and 60cm deep. Mix 18 kg of well decomposed manure with 60 grams of double super phosphate fertilizer and fill the hole with this mixture plus the top soil, and sow four papaw seedlings per hole which will be thinned out to one per hole at flowering. Firm the soil around the trees seedlings, then Top- dress with 40 grams of CAN fertilizer per hole.
Apply 200g of CAN or ASN on individual papaws once a year at the beginning of rains.
The Average yields of pawpaw trees are 30-40 tons of marketable fruits per hectare.
The papayas are ready for harvesting when a yellow tinge grows on the blossom end of the fruits. Handle the pawpaw fruits with care as dropping or bruising lowers the keeping quality.
Windbreak: Papaya trees are very sensitive to strong winds; to prevent breakage, establish windbreaks before transplanting.
A thorough land preparation is necessary for early crop establishment and adequate weed control. Slash, remove stumps and stones where necessary, and clear debris. Double plough, harrow and/or rotovate field to a fine tilth where necessary, line and peg.
Nursery Practices: Seedlings are best raised in 12cm x 20cm black poly bags.
Soil Media: Media for nursery can either be purchased or locally prepared. To prepare media, scrape away the topsoil, dig out sub-soil and moisten. Spread sawdust/rice husk on the sub-soil and burn slowly to sterilize. Leave to cool for 24hrs. Mix one part sub-soil with one part well decomposed manure.
Soak seeds 48 hours to break dormancy. Stir and change water at least 2 times discarding non-viable floating seeds. Air dry seeds for 6hrs and keep in clean absorbent cloth for 3-4 days in a warm dark place for seeds to sprout before sowing. Make drainage holes in poly bags, and fill with media. Evenly sow 4-6 sprouted seeds at a depth of 1cm and cover with about 1cm of soil and firm. Water copiously. Arrange poly bags under shades. Cover with transparent polythene sheets. Remove sheets immediately after emergency (3-4 days). Apply 5g Mono Ammonium Phosphate (MAP) per liter of water on seedlings three weeks after emergence.
Harden seeds by gradually reducing shade and exposing them to sun before transplanting. Thin out to 3 seedlings/ bag before transplanting.
Planting out: Transplanting seedlings at a space of 1.8m x 2m (about 2,800 plants/ha) or 2m x 2.5m (about 2000 plts/ha) 4-6 weeks after emergence.
Thinning out: Thin out to one plant per stand after the first flush of flowers appears, selecting only sturdy plants with hermaphrodite flowers.
Routine weed control is recommended. Hand weeding where practiced should be shallow to avoid damaging roots.
To maintain vigorous plant growth, irrigate during the dry season to achieve a total of 150 to 200 mm per month. (Consult your irrigation specialist for assistance). Supplementary irrigation (drip, under tree or micro sprinkler) is necessary to reduce incidence of flower abortion and improve yields all year round.
Use soil analysis as a guide for fertilizer application. A general recommendation is to apply 114g of Triple Super Phosphate (TSP)/hill at planting and three spades full of well decomposed manure three times a year. Subsequently apply the recommended rates of fertilizer as presented below.
Age after planting
Urea – 46% N
These qualities may be increased/reduced depending on the results of plants/soil analysis and on the amount of manure applied.
After flowering apply 25ml/15L knapsack of foliar fertilizer (high Boron and Calcium) every 14days.
Pests and Diseases
Pest and disease control:
Spider mites & Thrips: Control with Sulphur 80WP at 50g/15L (3.3 -3.5g/L) and repeat after 5 days. Application should be early in the morning or late in the evening. Shake knapsack during spraying.
Grasshoppers and crickets: Control by using approved methods.
To control, use biological control agents and pheromone traps, Contact PPRSD/MoFA for bio-agents.
To control, plant marigold (Tagetes spp) or croatalaria on the land 2-3 months before transplanting. Plough this into the soil as part of the land preparation. Well decomposed manures also help to control nematodes. Practice crop rotation with non-susceptible hosts.
Obtain seeds from disease free fruits on healthy mother plants. Practice farm hygiene. Control using EPA approved fungicides.
Die-back: Destroy all affected plants.
Mosaic: Transmitted by Bermisia. Control vectors and rogue out all affected plants and burn.
Damping-off (in seedlings): To control, ensure good drainage and improve sunlight penetration in the nursery.
Bunchy top: Monitor fields and rogue out infested plants and control the vector.
Remedies to Pests and Diseases
For black spots that appear on the fruit spray with an organic copper-based fungicide spray.
root rot, water appropriately
For birds and fruit bats, pick the fruits as soon as they start to turn color.
To reduce fruit rot and fungal problems, pick the fruit early and ripen it indoors.
To get rid of fruit fly, hang fruit fly Traps around the trees.
For mildew, ensure good airflow around the plants and can be controlled by spraying with appropriate fungicides
Fruiting/Fruit thinning: Where fruit set is too heavy remove some of the fruits to allow remaining fruits to develop properly. Overcrowded fruits are mostly misshapen.
Fruits mature 8-9 months after transplanting. Harvest when color breaks (a tinge of yellow at the bottom end). Harvest in the cool hours of the day. Wear gloves and harvest into plastic crates to avoid bruising fruits. Economic harvesting may last up to 3 years.
Papaya trees, also known as paw-paws, are fast-growing with a short life span, reaching 15 feet or higher in optimal conditions. Known as either Hawaiian or Mexican varieties, fruit “berries” can be ½ Kg and sweet (Hawaiian) or up to 4.5 Kgs and milder (Mexican). Red Maradol papayas come from Mexico and range from 2 to 8 pounds with edible seeds. The trees are easily grown in containers, but require lots of watering and fertilizer to produce the heavy fruits.
Choose a sunny spot for planting the red maradol papaya or placing its container. Provide well-drained soil and a consistent temperature of 70 to 90 degrees in a wind-buffered area. Placing the papaya next to a building offers heat reflection it enjoys, but the tree’s eventual size could be a detriment to the building.
Purchase a Red Maradol papaya that is a small tree in a large container, without roots that have circled inside the container with nowhere to go. Look for a tree that is certified as disease-free and appears healthy and pest-free.
Plant the Red Maradol papaya tree after soil temperatures have warmed in the spring. Containers can be placed outside after the last frost date, but soil temperatures should remain above 60 degrees for non-container trees. Anchor black plastic over the soil several weeks before planting to raise the soil temperature; once the tree is planted and watered, place the black plastic around it to control soil temperatures until the threat of cold soil has passed.
Dig a large hole for the Red Maradol papaya with a spade for planted trees. Make the hole at least 3 times as deep and 3 to 4 times the width of the container to loosen the soil and help the roots expand easily. Partially fill the hole with the native soil and place the papaya tree on top of the soil so that the root ball is level with the rim of the hole; fill in the rest of the hole and gently press the soil down.
Water the tree thoroughly at planting, but do not saturate the soil so that the tree is sitting in a puddle, as this could cause the roots to rot. Water the soil deeply and keep it moist as the tree establishes.
Mulch around the base of the tree to retain moisture, suppress weeds and even out soil temperatures so that the tree is not subjected to sudden change. Keep the mulch about 8 inches away from the trunk of the tree if it is planted in the ground. Mulching container trees is also beneficial, but depending on the size of the container, mulch may need to be closer to the trunk. Use an organic mulch, such as tree bark or compost.
Apply fertilizer to establishing Red Maradol papaya trees every 2 weeks; by 8 months, scale back to once a month. Fertilizing is especially important for container trees, as they are unable to pull any nutrients in from the surrounding soil. Use a commercial granular fertilizer that is high in nitrogen and can be diluted in water; follow the manufacturer’s directions to properly mix and apply. Apply it to the soil, not to the tree trunk or leaves, to prevent burning.
Large container (optional)
Container-grown trees dry out quickly and the tree requires a lot of water for fruit establishment.
Papayas do not need pruning due to their short life span.
Compost may be added to the native soil during planting, but no more than a 50/50 mix is recommended for the initial planting.
Cost of packages involves the cost of soil testing, land preparation, seedlings and three months management. Management involves visiting the farm on regular basis for advice as well as replacement of non performing seedlings. We can extend the three month management on agreement with the client.
No of seedlings -700
Cost of holes preparation-30 per hole
Cost of manure 23, 000
Cost of planting -@10 per hole 7,000
Cost of seedlings @70
We charge 60,000 per acre which involve the cost of land preparation, seedlings and 3 months monitoring, manure at the cost of the client.
With only 40,000 per acre, this includes the cost of land preparation, seedlings, planting and three months monitoring.
No of seedlings 150
Cost of seedling @150
Cost of manure 15,000
No of seedlings 1200
Cost per hole @40
Cost of manure; 30,000
Cost per seedling 100
We charge 200,000 per acre which involve the cost of land preparation, seedlings, planting and 3 months management
We charge 45,000 per acre. This involves the cost of 200 seedlings, land preparation, planting and three months monitoring
No of seedlings 150
Cost of seedling 300
We charge 60,000 per acre, it involves the cost of seedlings, land preparation, planting and three months monitoring.
English: Pawpaw; Swahili: papaya. Pawpaw is a widely cultivated fruit tree in the tropics and subtropics. General Benefits of Pawpaw Ripe papaya is a favorite breakfast and dessert fruit that is available year-round.
It can be used to make fruit salads, refreshing drinks, jam, jelly, marmalade, candies and crystallized fruits. Green fruits are pickled or cooked as a vegetable.
Suitable Growth Condition
Papaya thrives in warm areas with adequate rainfall and a temperature range of 21-33°C. Its altitude range is similar to that of the banana, from sea level to elevations at which frosts occur (often around 1600 m). However they grow best in areas below 1000 m.
The quality and yield are low at higher altitudes. Frost can kill the plant, and cool and overcast weather delays fruit ripening and depresses fruit quality. Fruit tastes much better when grown during a warm sunny season. Evenly distributed annual rainfall of 1200 mm is sufficient if water conservation practices are employed.
Papaya grows best in light, well-drained soils rich in organic matter with soil pH of 6.0-6.5. It can tolerate any kind of soil provided it is well-drained and not too dry. The roots are very sensitive to water logging and even short periods of flooding can kill the plants.
Papaya is propagated by seed. To reproduce the desired characteristics it is best to get seeds through controlled pollination. Use of sterilized soil minimizes losses resulting from nematodes and damping-off fungi. Germination takes 2-3 weeks.
Another practice is to sow the seeds in sterilized nursery beds and to prick out at the 2-3-leaf stage, transferring 3-4 seedlings to each container. Seedlings are transplanted about 2 months after sowing when they reach the 3-4-leaf stage or 20 cm height, preferably at the onset of the rainy season.
During transplanting, take care not to disturb the roots. Older seedlings recover poorly after planting out. Papaya needs adequate drainage and is often planted on mounds or ridges. Transplants must be watered regularly until they are established. Field spacing are in the order of 3 x 2 m to 2.50 x 1.60 m, giving densities of 1667 and 2500 plants/ha respectively.
Thinning to one female or one hermaphrodite plant per hill is done when the plants reach the flowering stage. In the absence of hermaphrodite plants, 1 male plant per 25 – 100 female plants is retained as pollinator.
Papaya plants grown from seed produce fruits of different shapes, sizes, colour and even taste. Vegetative propagation of papaya provides a solution to most of these problems. The clone is selected for higher productivity and good quality fruits besides agronomic qualities such as dwarfness for easy harvesting and good resistance to diseases.
Planting holes of 2*2*2 ft are prepared with 1 bucket of compost and is mixed in with the dugout soil and returned around the plant. Firm the soil and water liberally and add mulch around the young plant.
The farmer can choose to grow the crops conventionally or do organic farming.
Papaya grows best when planted in full sunlight. However, it can be planted as an inter crop under coconut, or as a cash crop between young fruit trees such as mango or citrus. Low growing annual crops such as capsicums, beans, onions and cabbages are suitable good inter crops.
The stage of physiological development at the time of harvest determines the flavor and taste of the ripened fruit. The fruit matures at 9 months after transplanting. The appearance of traces of yellow colour on the fruit indicates that it is ready for harvesting. Fruits harvested early have longer post-harvest life, but give abnormal taste and flavor. The fruits also tend to shrivel and suffer chilling injuries when refrigerated. The fruit is twisted until the stalk snaps off or cut with a sharp knife. Yields per tree vary from 75 to 150 fruits annually, giving 35 to 50 tons of fruit per ha per year. A papaya plantation can be productive for over 10 years but the economical period is only the first 3 to 4 years. It is therefore advisable to renew the plantation every 4 years.
COST AND RETURNS FROM ONE ACRE
Number of seedlings in one acre at a spacing of 6ft*9ft 800-900 plants.
For 800 plants.
Unit cost (800)
One bucket per hole
Digging, transport of manure to the hole, mixing and planting