Kenya produces an estimated one hundred and fifteen thousand metric tons of avocados annually. Out of this, 70% are grown by small scale farmers. The local market has been a major beneficiary of these avocados, but lately, this has changed drastically. Many farmers have begun commercializing to the export market thanks to new variety; Hass,which has high demand in the European market.
Other varieties grown are Fuerte and Pinkerton. Initiatives by the Kenyan government have seen a major boost to the avocado industry to fully comply with global market standards and regulations. KEPHIS has been actively involved in monitoring and educating farmers and exporters. Increased investment by county governments also plays an important role in boosting farmers who have consistently struggled with low prices from middlemen.
For instance, Murang’a County one of avocado growing areas, many farmers have embraced avocado cultivation following the County government initiative of distributing free commercially viable Hass variety seedlings to farmers. They have also directed that the price of one piece of export avocado should be at least 10 Kenya shillings.
An avocado farmer reveals that they used to cultivate fuerte and pinkerston which were not high yielding. Since they embraced Hass variety they have seen an emergence of many buyers such as; Kakuzi, Vegpro, Olvando among others.
Also see: The role of an Agronomist
How to plant avocados
Most people in Muranga used to depend on coffee as their source of livelihood. Farmers attests that avocados are easy to grow unlike other fruits as they do well in different types of soil and do not require a lot of water and attention. They are fairly resistant to drought and average distributed rainfall is adequate for proper crop plant development. There are two ways of planting avocados.
- First they are planted as seedlings which involve digging huge holes to retain water when the plants are young for a better growth. Manure is also required during their initial stages for a strong and better root development.
- The second method is planting the ordinary avocado seeds. Top working entails cutting a whole tree and when it starts to shoot up again, we graft the emerging branches with the Hass variety to achieve a new tree which is highly productive.
Grafted hass Avocados
Grafted avocados trees take close to three to four years to be ready for fruiting and fruits can be harvested to a period of four months. On average, a single tree can yield to a maximum of 500 fruits in a season. The harvesting season for the fruit in this region is between the months of March to June.
One farmer attests that for them to have a bumper harvest, they usually have to crop manage their plant to the latter. This involves removing excess branches which reduces yields and application of ash to control mites which feeds on the base of the trees causing them to rot and eventually to dry. White flies are a major challenge they grapple with and to control them, they do regular sprays as well use traps.
On their three acre piece of land, a farmer can garner an average of two hundred and fifty thousand shillings in a season. Boniface a farmer in Muranga usually sell at forty shillings a kilogram to the established companies in the area and sometimes seven shillings per fruit to middlemen who transports the fruits to Nairobi, Thika and other major towns.
Oxfarm Organic Ltd is a licensed company that deals with seedlings. A part from growing avocados for sale, we run an avocado nursery as well. This entails planting ordinary avocado seeds in small black polythene paper bags and once they sprout and attain a height of three centimeter, we graft with the scion of the Hass variety before transplanting and selling the rest.
This process takes a period of four months for the grafted plants to be ready for planting. The demand for grafted avocados has increased by a great margin and we are are receiving orders from various people within all over the country.
We also graft and sell other seedlings as can be seen below. Book now for the next rainy season!!!