Management Practices

Hass avocado farming has become the major project many farmers are undertaking in the country due to its high profit margin currently and in the future. The fruit being referred to as the Golden fruit. However, most farmers are not acquainted with the necessary information regarding Hass avocado growing till the production phase. Avocados are sensitive in terms of management hence the farmers should involve professionals in the production cycle. Professionalism refers to doing things right from the start that is; selection of quality and certified bodies, planting procedure, general cultural practices such as Fertigation, pest and disease management, pruning, harvesting and post-harvest handling of the produce.

Management practices are critical at every stage to boost the general production. The following practices are recommended to farmers;

  • Site selection

Avocados do well in drained soils with an altitude of 1000m-2500m asl with moderate temperatures of 180c – 250c. Avoid waterlogged conditions since hass avocado are susceptible to root rot.

  • Planting

Dig a hole 2ftx2ftxft and separate the topsoil with subsoil. During planting mix, the top soil with well decomposed manure and earthlee and return the mixture first in the hole to almost full. Make a small hole and put the seedling at the center, cover with the soil to the level of the soil nursery. Cover the seedling to make a ridge to allow water to flow free after irrigation. Water the seedling in the evening after planting.

  • Staking

This is essential to develop the tree leader early to establish the pyramid shape which is desirable in hass avocado production.

  • Irrigation

This is the crucial practice in the production phase. Before a farmer commences their projects they should give a priority on a clean source of water suitable for farming.

In avocado production, irrigation should be done 2-3 times a week depending on rainfall pattern. Excess watering should be avoided to prevent the root rot menace.

  • Mulching

This refers to the practice of placing grass straws around the tree to conserve the soil moisture. Mulches also decompose adding organic matter into the soil improving the soil structure, aeration, texture etc.

  • Weeding

Refers to the removal of foreign or unwanted plants around the field to minimize nutrients competition. Intercropping is encouraged for land utilization and nutrient balancing in the soil.

  • Pruning

Refers to removal of extra branches to create and develop a good framework with maximum production. Usually done after first harvesting (3years). However, nipping is usually done in the first two years.

  • Pest and disease management

This is the most crucial stage in crop development. Every farmer is required to start early monitoring for pests and diseases to identify controls through Integrated Pest Management.

Farmers require much knowledge in pest and disease management and hence should involve agricultural experts in their projects.

Common Diseases;

Phytophthora root rotTrees rot from the bottom/rootsPlant in well drained soilsAvoid excess irrigationPlant avocado trees on a ridge
Powdery mildewAsh like appearance on the leavesMaintain orchard hygieneUse mazao regain as a biocontrol
Armillaria root rotTrees start turning yellow and dry completely with timeSoil drench before orchard establishmentBurning plant remains of previous season and tree trunks.
BlightSevere and sudden yellowing Leaves browning and finally witherAvoid dump environmentSpray preventive products
AnthracnoseIrregular dark  sunken blotches on leaves and fruitsField hygieneUse copper based products such as Funguran, mastercop
PestSigns and symptomsManagement
Fruit flyAdultsUse of pheromone traps Biological pesticides
False codling moth Use of pheromone traps Biological pesticides
Mosquito bugs Use of pheromone traps Biological pesticides
Mites Early monitoring Field sanitation Avoid dusty Environment Spray preventive products

Effect of False Codling Moth in Avocado

Fruit fly


A farmer should use an Integrated system during the production to produce fruits suitable for export market. The system includes;

  • Physical and Mechanical control

Use of sticky traps, pheromone lures

Setting up controlled growing zones such as Greenhouses or shade nets for crops such as strawberries.

  • Cultural control

Weed management, minimal tillage, changing on irrigation practices, nutrient management

  • Biological control

Predators, Parasitoids, Entomopathogenic Nematodes, Entomopathogenic Fungi, Nematophagous Fungi, Beneficial Soil Fungi and Bacteria, Viruses

  • Chemical control

This is usually the last option in the control system when the pest/disease incidences have exceeded the economic threshold.

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